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PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

OF THE 

CITY OF CHICAGO 






FORTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



BOARD OF EDUCATION 



FOR THE 



YEAR ENDING JUNE 23, 1899 



1900 

JOHN F. HIQGINS PRINT 196-196 CLARK STREET 

80 






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BOARD OF EDUCATION 



For the Year l898-99^ 



GRAHAM H. HARRIS, rresidmt, 

THOMAS GALLAGHER, Vice-President, 

W. A, S. GRAHAM, Secretary, 



TKRM 
NAME. ADDRBSS. BXPIRB8. 

Thomas Brenan, 216 Reaper Block, Clark and Washington Streets, - 1899 

Daniel R. Cameron, 73 Lake Street, . - . . . is99 

Alfred S. Trude, Room 15, No. 79 Clark Street, .... 1901 

Christian Meier, Room 42, No. 70 La Salle Street, - - - 1899 

George E. Adams, Room 914, Temple Building, - - - - 1899 

H. H. Gross, Room 484, Rookery Building, - - - - 1899 

Clayton Mark, Twenty-sixth street and Blue Island Avenue, - • 1899 

Joseph H. Strong, Room 26, 115 Monroe Street, - - . - 1899 

Mrs. Caroline K. Sherman, 1538 West Monroe Street, • - • 1900 

John T. Keating, Room 33, 66 Dearborn Street, - - - - 1900 

Thomas Gallagher, 241 South Sangamon Street, .... igoo 

Bernard F. Rogers, 154 La Salle Street, ..... 1900 

Jesse Sherwood, 6328 Harvard avenue, - - . . . 1900 

Graham H. Harris, Room 1013, 59 Clark Street, .... 1900 

Joseph S. Schwab, 84 La Salle Street, ---... 1900 

Mrs. Isabelle O'Keeffe, 4857 Michigan Avenue, - • - 1901 

Joseph Downey, Room 407, No. 182 La Salle Street, - - 1901 

W. S. Christopher, 406 Center Street, . . . . . 1901 

C. R. Walleck, 544 Blue Island Avenue, ..... 1901 

F. J. LoESCH, Room 305, Ashland Block, ..... 1901 

Austin O. Sbxton, Hopm 26, No, 163 Randolph Street, • 1901 



• •••••!•••• • 






• • • 

• ••• 



■ • 



• • 



• • 



ta t B <.„'^ ••••••••• 



6 






• • 



STANDING COMMITTEES FOR J898-99. 



SCHOOL MANAGEMENT. 

Messrs. Brenan, Sherwood, Adams, Mrs. Sherman, Messrs. Keatinf?, Cameron, 

Loesch. Mrs. O'Keeffe, Messrs. Trude, Sexton, 
Gallagher and Schwab. 

JANITORS AND SUPPLIES. 

Messrs. Gallagher, Mark, Sexton, Keating and Cameron. 

BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS. 

Messrs. Rogers, Downey, Mark, Sherwood, Gallagher, Cameron, Sexton, 

Loesch and Walleck. 

FINANCE. 

Messrs. Downey, Mark, Gross. Rogers »nd Schwab. 

JUDICIARY. 

Messrs, Sexton, Adams and Schwab. 

SCHOOL FUND PROPERTY. 

Messrs. Sherwood, Trude, Mark, Downey, Strong, Walleck and Sexton. 

HIGH SCHOOLS. 

Mrs. Sherman, Messrs. Trude, Gallagher, Mrs. O'Keeffe, 
Messrs. Adans, Schwab and Meier. 

MANUAL TRAINING. 

Messrs. Mark, Christopher, Loesch, Downey, Sherwood, Gross and Walleck. 

SPECIAL FUNDS. 

Mr. Cameron, Mrs. Sherman, Messrs. Christopher, Gross and Meier. 

DRAWING. 

Messrs. Sohwab, Strong, Mrs. Sherman. Messrs. Walleck and Meier. 

MCSIC. 

Messrs. Loesch, Strong, Mrs. Sherman, Messrs. Schwab, Meier and Trude. 

GERMAN. 

Messrs. Adams, Strong, Mrs. Sherman, Messrs. Loesch and Trude. 

PHYSICAL CULTURE. 

Messrs. Meier, Sherwood, Mark, Walleck and Christopher. 

COMPULSORY EDUCATION. 

Messrs. Trude, Loesch, Mrs. O'Keeffe, Messrs. Christopher and Keating. 

NORMAL SCHOOL. 

Messrs. Keating, Sherwood, Mrs. Sherman, Messrs. Gallagher, 

Rogers, Strong and Sexton. 

RETRENCHMENT AND REFORM. 

Messrs. Gross, Cameron, Keating, Downey and Schawb. 

RULES. . 

Messrs. Walleck, Loesch, Downey, Sexton and Rogers. 



SUPERINTENDENTS, SUPERVISORS AND BUSINESS 

OFFIOALS, 1 898-99. 



E. Benjamin Andrews. - 
Albert G. Lane, 
Edward C. Delano, 
Albert R. Sabin, : 
Ella F. Young, - 
Leslie Lewis, - 
James Hannan, 
A. F. Nightingale, - 
Alfred Kirk, 
William W. Speer, - 
GusTAV A. Zimmerman, - 
Herman Hanstein, 
Josephine C. Locke, 
Gabriel Katzenberoer, 
Orlando Blackman, 
Agnes C. Heath, 
Henry Sudbr, 
Theodore J. Bluthardt, 
Ellen C. Alexander, 
R. F. Beardsley, 
Mary McCowen, - 
Daniel J. McMahon, 
*W. A. S. Graham, 
John A. Guilford, - 
Thomas J. Waters, 
George G. Custer, - 
John W. Foster, 
W. B. Mundie, 



- Superintendent of Schools 

Ass't Superintendent of Schools 

Ass't Superintendent of Schools 

Ass't Superintendent of Schools 

Ass't Superintendent of Schools 

Ass't Superintendent of Schools 

Ass't Superintendent of Schools 

Ass't Superintendent of Schools 

Ass't Superintendent of Schools 

Ass't Superintendent of Schools 

Modern Languages 

(High School) Drawing 

(Grammar and Primary Grades) Drawing 

(High School Grades) Singing 

(Grammar Clradesj Singing 

(Primary Grades) Singing 

Physical Culture 

Compulsory Education and Sanitation 

Kindergartens 

- Manual Training 

Schools for Deaf 

Attorney 

Clerk and School Agent 

Business Manager 

Chief Engineer 

Auditor 

Superintendent of Supplies 

- Architect 



♦Was succeeded by Louis C. Lepner July 13, 1899. 



COMMITTEES ON SCHOOLS, 1898-99. 



CHICAGO NORMAL SCHOOL. 

Messrs. John T. Keating, Jesse Sherwood, Mrs. Caroline K. Sherman 

Messrs. Thomas Gallagher, Bernard F. Rogers, .Joseph 

H. Strong and Austin O. Sexton. 



HIGH SCHOOLS* 

Mrs. Caroline K. Sherman, Messrs. Alfred S. Thude, Thomas Gallagher, 

Mrs. Isabellb O^Keeffe, Messrs. George E. Adams. 

Joseph S. Schwab and Christian Meier. 



ENGLISH HIGH AND MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOL 

Messrs. Clayton Mark, W. S. Christopher, F. J. Loesch, Joseph Downey, 
Jesse Sherwood, H. H. Gross and C. R. Walleck. 



DISTRICT No. U 



Messrs. Rogers, Adams and Christopher. 



Agassiz, 

Alcott, 

Arnold, 

Audubon, 

Belle Plaine Avenue, 

Blaine, 

Bowmanville, 

Burley, Aujrustus H. 

Goudy, W. C. 



Greeley, Horace, 

Hamilton, 

Hawthorne, 

Headley, 

Knickerbocker, 

La Salle, 

Lincoln, 

McPherson, 

Morris, 



Mulligan, 
Nettelhorst, Louis, 
Newberry, 
Prescott, 
Ravenswood, 
Rogers Park, 
Rose Hill, 
Schneider, George, 
Thomas, George H. 



DISTRICT No. 2. 



Messrh. Schwab and Sexton. 



Adams, J. Q. 
Andersen, 
Armour Street, 
Carpenter, 
Columbus, 
Franklin, 
Hoyne, Thomas, 
Huron Street, 
Kinzie, 



Kosciusco, 
La Fayette, 
Manierre, 
Mitchell, Ellen, 
Motley, 
Oak Street, 
Oakley Avenue, 
Ogden. 



Peabody, 

Schiller, 

Sheldon, 

Taleott, 

Trumbull, Lyman, 

Washington, 

Wells, 

Wicker Park. 



DISTRICT No. 3. 

Messkh. Loesch, Meier and Harris. 



Avondale, 

Bancroft, 

Bismarck, 

Brentano, 

Burr, 

Cameron, D. R. 

Chase, 

Darwin, Charles R. 

Drummond, 



Goethe, 

Irvinf? Park, 

Jefferson Park, 

Lang'land, 

Linne, 

Lo(?an, 

Lowell, 

Moos, Bernhard, 



Nash, Henry H. 
Nixon, Wm. Penn, 
Norwood Park, 
Pulaski, 
Ryerson, 
Von Humboldt, 
Waubansia Avenue, 
Yates, Richard. 



Mrs. 

Brown, 
Calhoun, 
Central Park, 
Crerar, John, 
Dore, 
Emerson, 
Ericsson, John. 
Goodrich. 
Grant, 



DISTRICT No* 4. 

Sherman, Mehsrs. Gallagher and Cameron, 



Hayes, 

Irving, 

Jackson, Andrew, 

Jeilerson. 

King, 

Lawson, Victor F. 

McLaren, John, 

Manjuette, 

Marshall, 



Montefiore, 

Polk Street. 

Scammon, 

Skinner, 

Sumner, 

Tennyson, 

Tilden, 

Tilton. 



DISTRICT No. 5. 

Messrs. Downey, Mark and Walleck. 



Blue Island Avenue, 

Brainard, 

Bryant, 

Chalmers, Thomas, 

Clarke, 

C«oper, 

Corkery, Daniel J., 

Eighteenth Street, 

Farragut, 

Foster, 



Froebel, 

Garfield, 

Gladstone, 

Hammond, 

Rowland, George, 

Jirka, Frank J., 

Komensky, 

Lawndale, 

Longfellow, 

Med ill, 



Pickard, 

Rogers, 

Smyth, John M., 

Swing, David, 

Throop, 

Walsh, 

Washburne, 

Whittier, 

Worthy, John. 



DISTRICT No. 6. 

Messrs. Trude, Sherwood and Mrs. O'Kefffe. 



Barnard, Alice L. 

Bass, Perkins, 

Beale, 

Brenan, Thomas, 

Brighton, 

Buckley, 

Burroughs, 

Chicago Lawn, 

Coleman, 



Everett, 

Fulton, 

Graham, 

Greene, Nathanael, 

Hancock, 

Hedges, 

Hendricks, 

Hoerner, 

Holden, 



Kershaw, 

McAllister, 

O'Toole, 

Parkman, 

Raster, Hermann, 

Seward, 

Sherman, 

Shields, 

Wentworth, D. S. 



Earle, Charles Warrington, Holmes, 



DISTRICT No. 7. 

Messrs. Keating and Gross. 



Auburn Park, 

Brown ell, 

Burnside, Ambrose E., 

Carter, 

Cornell, 

Curtis, George Wra., 

Ellis Avenue, 

Fallon, 

Fern wood, 

Gresham, 

Harrison, 



Hartigan, 

Harvard, 

Healy, 

Kenwood, 

Kozminskl, Charles, 

Lewis,-Champlain, 

McClellan, 

McCosh, 

Mann, Horace, 

Normal Practice, 



Park Manor, 

Ray, 

Scanlan, 

Sheridan, Mark, 

Sherwood, 

Van Vlissingen. 

Ward, 

West Pullman, 

Woodlawn, 

Yale. 



DISTRICT No, 8. 



Messrs. Brenan and Strong . 



Bowen, 

BradweL, Myra, 

CJalumet Avenue, 

Olay, Henry, 

Cummings, 

D^olittle, James R., Jr., 

Douglas, 

Eighty-third Street, 

Farren, 

Porrestville, 

Fuller, Melville W., 



Gallistel, 

Greenwood Avenue, 

Haven, 

Jones, 

Keith, 

Madison Avenue, 

Marsh, J. L., 

Moseley, 

Oakland, 

Oak Ridge, 

Parkside, 



Pullman, 

Raymond, 

Riverdale. 

Scott, Walter, 

Sheridan, Pbil., 

Springer, 

Stoney Island Avenue, 

TayUr, 

Thorp, J. N., 

Webster, 

Willard, Francis E. 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 



To the Board of Education of the City of Chicago: 

I beg to present herewith my first annual report as 
President, and desire to again express my gratitude to you, my 
colleagues for the confidence, honors and support so unani- 
mously accorded me. 

The following tables contain items of valuable information 
and explain themselves. 

i8gy-g8 iSgS-gg 

Salaries of superintendents and teachers $4,459,322 17 $4,866,661 80 

June pay roll .*.... 462,645 83 489.056 60 

Children in rented buildings 13,015 13.439 

Children in half-day sessions 17,233 16,210 

Number of principals and teachers 5,268 5,535 

Enrollment 236,239 242,807 

Purchase of school sites % 95,665 00 $158,829 69 

New buildings 471,252 32 905.944 52 

Appropriations 6.140.533 20 7,744,605 94 

Less cost of collection . . , 298.805 09 

SCHOOL SITES PURCHASED DURING THE SCHOOL YEAR. 

1898-99. 

FROM JULY 1 TO DECEMBER 31. 1898. 

Northeast corner 101st street and Union avenue, 198.4x125.19. .$ 2,380 80 
Calumet avenue, between 41st street and 42nd street, 195x128. . . 29.732 00 

Northeast comer Mohawk and Menominee streets, 163x119 33,500 00 

Addition to Dore School lot, 50x111 20,000 00 

Addition to Lake View High School lot, 50x160. 35 3.700 00 

Prairie avenue, north of 39th street, 200x264 45.000 00 

Prairie avenue, north of 39th street 986 53 

Addition to Forrestville School lot, 50x125 7,000 00 

Northeast corner Edmunds avenue and Goodman street, 2633^x 

150 3,000 00 



12 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



FROM JANUARY 1 TO JUNE 30, 1899. 

Southeast comer North 42nd court and West CuUom street, 

2471^x155.69 5.000 00 

Northeast comer Ingleside avenue and 54th street 

Addition to Avondale School lot 2,000 00 

Addition to Lawndale School lot 4,780 86 

ADDITIONS TO SCHOOLS BUILT DURING 1898-99. 

Rooms. Sittings, 

Arnold Addition 7 874 

Bryant Addition 10 522 

Longwood Branch Addition 2 108 

Lake View High Addition 16 548 

Lafayette Addition 12 619 

Englewood High Addition 6 827 

Fallon Addition 10 584 

McPherson Addition 6 288 

Farren Addition 12 576 

Northwest Division High Addition 6 861 

Alcott Addition 7 829 

O'Toole Addition 12 576 

Motley Addition 9 414 

NEW BUILDINGS ERECTED DURING THE SCHOOL YEAR 

OF 1898-99. 

Rooms. Sittings. 

Buruside, Ambrose E 12 570 

Gallistel 16 758 

Willard, Frances E 21 1,008 

Edgebrook 2 108 

Edgewater 2 108 

Jirka, F.J 22 1,176 

Normal Practice 13 539 

BUILDINGS COMMENCED DURING THE SCHOOL YEAR OF 

1898-99 BUT NOT COMPLETED. 

Rooms, Awarded. 

Spry, John 22 May 18, 1898 

Schley, W. Scott 23 Sept. 7, 1898 

Field, Eugene 12 Nov. 2, 1898 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 1 3 

Rooms. Awarded. 

Dewey, George 22 Jan. 11, 1899 

Madison Avenue 8 April 5, 1899 

West Pullman 12 April 19, 1899 

Prescott Addition 12 May 3, 1899 

Waller, R. A , High 20 May 17, 1899 

Darwin : 22 June 14, 1899 

Earle, C. W 10 July 12, 1899 

Calumet Avenue 19 July 26, lb99 

LIST OF PRESENT VACANT SCHOOL SITES. 

Daly and 36th street (Brighton Park), 236.49x127. 

Carpenter street lot, between 90th and 91st streets, 100x125. 

Armitage avenue lot, northwest comer 49th street, 225x125. 

South Elizabeth street lot, near Hough avenue. 44x123. 

Martin street lot, north of 107th place, 25x125. 

Warren avenue lot, southeast corner Tallman avenue, 47x126. 

Thirty- third place lot, south front, between Auburn and Morgan, 
176x145.8. 

Avenue **M" lot, corner 97th street, 194.7x124. 

Brookline lot, 74th and Langley, 295.7x136.3. 

Jeffrey avenue and 71st street lot, 297x115.5. 

Loomis street lot, southwest corner 53rd street, 250x124.9. 

Park avenue lot, corner South 50th avenue. 180x190. 

Ninety-fifth street lot, corner Leavitt street, 175x175. 

West 19th street lot 100 feet west of boulevard, 115.5x166. (Site for 
mental and manual training for the blind ) 

Philip avenue lot, southeast corner 92nd street, 201.1x125.59. 

Butler street lot, northeast corner 81st street, 297x200. 

Rebecca street lot, northeast comer Washtenaw avenue, 199.02x124 5. 

Morgan street lot, southwest corner 117th street, 248.30x125.27. 

Sawyer avenue lot, northwest corner 53rd street, 249.65x126.1. ' 

North 64th avenue lot, near Cragin Station, half acre. 

Union avenue lot, northeast comer 101st street, 198.4x125.16. 

Calumet avenue lot, between 41st and 42nd streets, 195x128. 

Mohawk street lot, northeast corner Menominee street, 163x119. 

Prairie avenue lot, near 39th street, 200x264. 

Edmonds avenue lot, northeast corner Goodman street, 263.25x150. 

West Cullom street, southeast comer 42nd court, 247.25x155.69. 

Kensington lots, Michigan avenue near 115th street, 80x241.7 and 
86.2x253. 



14 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

VACANT PROPERTY BELONGING TO THE SCHOOL FUND. 

DISTRIBUTIVE ACCOUNT. 

North half of Lot 7, Block 2, Hilliard and Hitfs Subdivision (Wash- 
ington Heights), 25x125. 

Lots 55 and 56, Block 4, in Hough & Reed's Subdivision (Washington 
Heights), 50x125. 

Lot 5, in Block 10, in Hegewich, 25x118.88. 

Lots 2, 3 and 4, in Block 1, in Norwood Park, 150x127. 

Lot 24, in Block 1, in Norwood Park, 50x127. 

Sundry lots in Colvin's Subdivision, a total frontage of 964 feet. 

Sundry lots in Thompson's Subdivision, a total frontage of 350 feet. 

Lots 46, 47 and 48. in Block 1, in Boyd & Hall's Subdivision, 75x125.5. 

I call your attention to the following brief history of the 
past year's work and to sundry recommendations and sugg-es- 
tions presented herein for your consideration. 

SCHOOL ACCOMMODATIONS 

During my membership upon the Board of Education I 
have had an ever increasing conviction that it is the solemn 
duty of the Board to first provide ample and suitable accommo- 
dations for all elementary school pupils of legal school age. I 
believe this should be done even at the expense of high schools, 
and shall always do all in my power to prevent the taking of 
school privileges from elementary pupils and giving them to 
high school students. Upon investigation I discovered that a 
custom obtains, and has prevailed for years past, of accommo- 
dating overflow high school pupils in grammar school buildings 
and placing elementary pupils — those in first and second grade 
in particular — in rented rooms or half -day divisions as the case 
may be. This custom meets with my unqualified disapproval. 

The following tentative estimates were made recently by 
the District Superintendents, who ought to be more familiar 
than any other persons with the needs of their respective dis- 
tricts : 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 1 5 

Number of Buildings Number of 

or Additions. Booms. 

First District 9 94 

Second District 2 32 

Third District 6 120 

Fourth District 9 42 

Fifth District ; 5 84 

Sixth District 4 88 

Seventh District 9 90 

Eighth District 5 110 

Totals 42 669 

These district estimates are made not only to accommodate 
the present pupils in rented rooms or in half -day divisions, but 
also provide in part for future needs. There were in June, 
1900, about 22,000 children without proper school accommoda- 
tions. This number would fill twenty-two school buildings, 
containing twenty-two rooms each. The cost of such a build- 
ing is about $125,000.00, including the lot. Taking, therefore, 
a mean between the forty-two and thirty-two, of twenty-five 
buildings at $125,000.00 each, we have a total cost of $3,125,- 
000.00, or the sum it will take to adequately accommodate all 
the present pupils in rented rooms and half -day divisions, and 
make a slight provision for the future. 

The foregoing demonstrates the fact, beyond any contra- 
diction, that the money appropriated for school buildings by 
the common council is altogether inadequate for the present 
pressing needs, and does not provide in the least for the annual 
increase in pupils, which averages nearly 10,000 a year, and 
would fill ten twenty-room buildings each year. 

This is a subject that ought to receive the careful attention 
of tax-payers and school patrons generally. The matter should 
be thoroughly agitated in districts that are in dire need of relief, 
and the attention of the aldermen representing such localitsei 



l6 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

should be drawn to the school needs in such a forceful manner 
that they would work and vote for larger school appropriations. 

CONDEMNING LAND FOR SCHOOL PURPOSES. 

It is generally maintained, I believe, that the Board of Ed- 
ucation pays large prices for its school sites. I grant that in 
some instances this assertion has been true, but it is only be- 
cause of the protest raised by property holders in the vicinity 
where we want a school site. Every man wants the school 
built on a street two or three blocks from his own property, 
and endeavors to prevent a school building being located on 
his street. This condition will be remedied under the new law 
which authorizes the Board of Education to go into court and 
secure condemnation of land the same as railroads and other 
public corporations have been doing for years. 

The changes in the school laws and in the organization 
of public school systems have been important, but, like all 
changes in important matters of this character, they have been 
slow and responsive to a well defined demand and necessity of 
change. 

For some time the question has been mooted of giving to 
boards of education in large cities like Chicago power to con- 
demn land for school purposes. It has been maintained, as said 
on many sides, that the Board of Education pays high prices for 
its school sites. In some instances this is true, but it is due to 
the fact that the Board has been obliged to advertise for sites 
long before coming to the point of dealing directly with the 
sellers. In addition, it has become necessary to purchase large 
sites, and hence combinations have often been formed among the 
sellers to put the price up to the highest possible point. The 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 1 7 

only competition that we have had in the purchase of school 
sites has been between these owners of the various sites. In 
many instances, objections have been raised by owners of prop- 
erty contiguous to prospective sites, and efforts have been used 
to prevent the erection of school buildings on these particular 
places. We have had no remedy against this course until the 
Legislature passed the recent act giving boards of education 
power of eminent domain. This is a great advance in the direc- 
tion of economy and fair dealing, and enables the Board, in the 
event that the owners of property try to charge us too much, to 
apply to a court and have a jury of citizens fix a fair and reason- 
able price for the land. 

COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL. 

The question of giving the most useful education possible 
to pupils who can spend only one, two or three years in high 
school has very largely occupied the thought of laymen and 
educators in recent years. It is conceded on all sides that a 
partial high school course is very good so far as it develops the 
mind and character of the pupil. It, however, as a rule avails 
little in the business world. To make the high school course 
more practical and helpful than now to the young man or 
woman who must, on leaving school, enter the arena of the 
business world seems well nigh hopeless. 

The Commercial High School has been suggested as a solu- 
tion of the problem. I believe, with my colleagues on the 
Board and many prominent and successful business men of this 
city, that Chicago should have a centrally located, well equipped 
commercial high school. Not a business college like those 
with which all are familiar, but a school with a broad, compre- 
hensive and practical course of study — including language. 



l8 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

science, mathematics, advanced political and commercial geog^- 
raphy, civics and political economy, the elements of commercial 
law, the science of accounts, phonography, typewriting, me- 
chanical and free-hand drawing, and kindred subjects. These 
courses should be elective and large freedom given pupils who 
wish to take single studies or parts of groups of studies. 

The constant tendency among educators, all of whom are 
exceedingly conservative, has been towards a combination of 
mental training and the acquirement of useful knowledge. 
Little improvement can be made in our high school course for 
those who intend taking up what is generally known as the 
**learned professions" after graduation from high school, but 
in my iudgment great improvement can be had in the high 
school course for those who intend to follow in after life either 
commercial, industrial or even mechanical pursuits. Mental 
training and the acquirement of useful knowledge serviceable 
throughout life can and ought to go hand in hand. 

Desiring to ascertain the views of practical and successful 
business men, on November 28, 1898, 1 sent to such persons about 
five hundred letters asking their respective opinions of the pro- 
posed Commercial High School. Replies to a large majority of 
these letters were received — a few dissenting, but in the main 
endorsing the project, with minor modifications of the tentative 
course of study which was outlined in my communication. 

A special committee of the Board was appointed to look 
into the matter and see if provision could not be made for the 
opening of such a school early in January. This committee 
found that there were no funds available and the matter was 
deferred until such time as the finances of the Board should 
permit the organization and maintenance of such a school. 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 1 9 

I believe that there is at present the most urgent need of 
a school of this sort, and sincerely hope that the day is not far 
distant when such an institution as is outlined above can be 
organized in this city, feeling sure that it would soon win for 
itself universal favor and that the foundation of a school of 
this character would be quickly followed by a public demand 
for many other schools of the same kind. 

ANNEXATION OF AUSTIN. 

At the last municipal election, by referendum, a large part 
of School District No. 2, Township 39 North, Range 13, East 
of the Third Principal Meridian, in Cook County, Illinois, popu- 
larly known as Austin, was annexed to the City of Chicago. 

A controversy has since risen as to the sufficiency of the 
proceedings for annexation, and a test case is now pending and 
undetermined in the Supreme Court of Illinois. 

The following resolution was on April 19, 1899, passed by 
the Board in order to continue the schools in the annexed ter- 
ritory until the test case is decided : 

Whereas, A controversy has arisen as to the sufficiency of the pro- 
. ceedings for annexation of a large part of School District No. 2, Township 
39 North, Range 13 East of the Third Principal Meridian, in Cook County, 
Illinois, popularly known as Austin, to the City of Chicago ; and 

Whereas, A test case is about to be brought for the purpose of deter- 
mining in the Supreme Court of Illinois the sufficiency and legality of such 
annexation; now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That, pending such litigation, the Board of Education of 
the City of Chicago, by its proper officers, extend its jurisdiction in such 
district, said to be annexed, in such manner that it will not disturb the 
existing condition of the schools or district property ; that an inventory of 
all the school property in such district be taken, and a copy thereof filed 
with the Clerk of the Board of Education of the City of Chicago, and with 
• the Clerk of said district ; that warrants for the payment of the teachers 
within the territory said to be annexed for the months of April, May and 



20 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

June, 1899, and for the usual and necessary miscellaneous expenditures 
after April 8, 1899, and until the Supreme Court has decided such question, 
be ordered and drawn, as usual, by the school authorities of District No. 2, 
Town of Cicero, subject to approval by the Board of Education of the City 
of Chicago, and, when so approved, to be endorsed by the said Board of 
Education of the City of Chicago, as follows: 

"This warrant will be paid by the Board of Education of the City of 
Chicago in case the annexation of that part of District No. 2, Town of 
Cicero, north of Twelfth street, to Chicago, is held valid." 

And that the teachers and other employes of said District No 2, 
within said supposed annexed portion thereof, be treated by the Board of 
Education of the City of Chicago, so far as employment and re-employment 
are concerned, in the same manner as the teachers and employes of for- 
merly annexed districts have been treated by the Board of Education of 
the City of Chicago. 

It being distinctly understood that the Board of Education, by the 
adoption of the foregoing resolution, in no wise incurs any liability, or in 
any way obligates itself, unless the said annexation is declared valid. 



DEFALCATION OF THE SCHOOL AGENT. 

At the re-election of employes in June, 1899, Mr. Louis C. 
Legner was elected Clerk and School Agent to succeed W. A. S. 
Graham. Immediately after Mr. Graham had turned over to 
Mr. Legner his records, funds, securities, etc., a shortage in 
his accounts was discovered, which upon careful investigation 
and examination of all his records by expert accountants 
proved to be fully $35,000. To the friends of Mr. Graham 
and to the members of the Board the news of his embezzlement 
was a terrible blow. He had been a trusted employe of the 
Board for five years — one year as Clerk and four years as Clerk, 
Secretary and School Agent — and enjoyed the confidence and 
friendship of a host of the most prominent and influential citi- 
zens of Chicago. His downfall was as unexpected as it was sad. 
The Board of Education will suffer no loss by reason of his 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 21 

peculations, as he was bonded in two surety companies iti the 
sum of $50,000 each. 

CHANGE IN SYSTEM OF CHECK ENDORSEMENTS. 

The embezzlement referred to above drew, in a forcible 
manner, the attention of members of the Board to the system 
under which such action was possible. Investigation revealed 
the fact that Mr. Graham was able to appropriate to his own 
use checks drawn to his order as School Agent. Action was 
immediately taken by the Board to the effect that hereafter all 
checks must be drawn to the order of **The Board of Education 
of the City of Chicago," and when deposited they must be en- 
dorsed by the School Agent and by the Auditor. This change 
precludes all possibility of another such embezzlement except 
by collusion between the above named officials. 

In addition, several other steps have been taken at the sug- 
gestion of the surety companies that signed the bonds of our 
School Agent, to prevent the recurrence of a thing of this sort. 
Reflection, however, even upon this fact, ought to satisfy the 
Board that the business management of the many millions of 
dollars which annually pass through the hands of its employes 
has been careful and conservative. This is the first loss of the 
sort that the Board of Education has sustained in many years, 
whilst similar peculations occur daily in municipalities and in 
business houses, aggregating many times more than our late 
School Agent appropriated to his own use. The well-known 
probity of our Auditor and present School Agent and Clerk 
seems, however, a strong guaranty that the offense will not be 
repeated. 

I suggest that an annual audit of our books be had by some 



2 2 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

skillful and reliable accountant, at such time as the President 
and Chairman of the Finance Committee deem best. 

This audit should take the place of the examination of 
banking- institutions by the Auditor of Public Accounts of our 
state banks, or the like course which the Comptroller of the 
Currency pursues with national banks. 

CIVIL SERVICE. 

The Civil Service Act was approved by the State Legisla- 
ture on March 20, 1895, was adopted by a vote of the citizens 
on April 6, 1895, and by the Civil Service Commission pro- 
claimed to be in force on and after August 26, 1895. They fur- 
ther held that all persons holding positions and employed by the 
city on this date were hold-overs, and not amenable to the pro- 
visions of the Civil Service Law. Immediately grave doubts 
were expressed as to whether or not the Board of Education 
was subject to the provisions of the Civil Service Law. The 
matter was submitted to the then Civil Service Commission and 
Corporation Counsel Beale. In addition to his well-known 
probity and high standing as a lawyer, Mr. Beale had been 
President of the Board of Education and was thoroughly 
familiar with the system of employing and discharging of the 
various persons employed by the Board. He rendered his 
opinion to the Commission to the effect that the Board of 
Education was not within the purview of the Civil Service 
Law. Later, however, Mr. Adolf Kraus became President of 
the Civil Service Commission, and the new commission as then 
constituted declined to abide by the opinion of Mr. Beale. It 
voted that the Board was within the intent and purpose of the 
Civil Service Law. A friendly suit was instituted and carried 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 23 

to the Supreme Court. This court rendered an opinion on 
December 21, 1898, holding the Board of Education to be 
within the object and intent of the Civil Service Law. The 
controversy having ended, arrangements were at once made by 
the Board, and its officers were instructed, to enforce the Civil 
Service Law. I desire to congratulate the Board and the 
public in general upon the fact that the law has been rigidly 
and consistently enforced by the Board and its executive 
officers. 

Examinations were held by the Civil Service Commission 
in March, 1899, for the places and situations on the Board. 
The lists of successful candidates were not posted until May, 
T899. As soon as the lists were posted it was ascertained by a 
number of the employes of the Board of Education that they 
did not pass high enough to retain their places. A suit was in- 
stituted by some of these employes to ascertain whether or not 
the Civil Service Law became operative as to these employes 
on August 26, 1895. The Court held that the law did become 
operative as to these employes, although the Civil Service Com- 
mission had not specifically classified the positions and employ- 
ments of the Board of Education until January, 1899. 

Immediately upon the promulgation of this opinion all 
persons who had not been in the service of the Board of Edu- 
cation on or prior to August 26, 1895, or who had not been 
certified to the Board by the Civil Service Commission were 
separated from the service of the Board upon the order of the 
Civil Service Commission. At the time of writing of this 
report there is not an employe on the pay-rolls of the Board 
of Education who is not there by the consent and with the 
approval of the Civil Service Commission. It is and has alwavs 



24 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

been my candid judgment that consistent and rigid enforcement 
of this law regardless of personal likes and dislikes and without 
personal favoritism would be most beneficial to the employes of 
the Board of Education, to the members thereof, and especially 
to those who bear the burden of taxation. 

Like all innovations, mistakes have occurred, but time and 
familiarity with the law and its provisions, the uniform courte- 
ous and forbearing treatment which has been accorded us by 
the Civil Service Commission, have enabled us to live up to the 
law without conflict, to the best interests of all concerned. 

RESIGNATION OF MRS. ELLA F. YOUNG. 

Mrs. Ella F. Young severed her connection with the Chi- 
cago Public Schools after a ser\'ice covering a period of twenty- 
five years. Her reasons therefor appear in the following letters 
which I received from her and which were made public at the 
time. They appear on page 654, Proceedings of the Board of 
Education of June 14, 1899. 

Chicago, June 8, 1899. 
Graham H. Harris, President of the Board of Education: 

Dear Sir — It is my intention to sever my connection with the public 
schools of Chicago, at the close of the current school month. 

The Board of Eklucation has undergone many changes since I entered 
its service, yet it has ever generously recognized whatever of merit has 
been in my work, I take this opportunity to make acknowledgment of the 
courtesy and encouragement extended me by the Board. 

Respectfully yours, 

Ella F. Voung, 
District Superintendent of Schools. 



Chicago, June 13, 1900. 
Graham H. Harris, President of the Board of Education: 

De\r Sir — The announcement in the daily papers, regarding meet- 
ings to be held Saturday, June lOth, by the Teachers' Federation and the 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 2$ 

Teachers' Club, necessitated a statement from me concerning my future in 
the schools. My information was received so late, June 9th, that it was 
impossible for -me to write you before writing to the teachers. 

I beg pardon for sending you a clipping from the newspaper as a 
statement of my conclusions, but I can add nothing thereto, and the 
clipping is a correct copy of my letter. 

Thanking you for your personal, as well as official, courtesy to 
me, I am. Very truly yours. 

Ella F. Young. 



Miss GoggtHs President of the Chicago Teachers' Federation', and Miss 
Mary E. Lynch, President of the Chicago Teachers' Club: 

I have learned through the city press that the Federation and the 
Teachers' Club will meet Saturday, June 10, to prepare a petition to the 
Board of Education in relation to my resignation. While warmly appre- 
ciating the friendly attitude which leads some of the teachers to take such 
action, I owe it to them because of their confidence in me to declare my 
position. 

As you well know, I hold positive views regarding official courtesy 
and official discipline. Only after careful consideration of all the conditions 
did I take this important step. To withdraw my resignation would imply 
either that the conditions had not been duly considered by m& or that the 
conditions had been changed. Neither of these implications is true. 

Let me present the subject in another light. When a subordinate in 
interviews, which she knows will be published in the daily papers, 
expresses herself as being in disaccord professionally with her superior in 
office, the relations of the subordinate and chief should be severed. I felt 
obliged to express my opinion in these interviews. Under the circum- 
stances it would not be in accord with my theories of discipline for me to 
continue as a district superintendent. 

Promotion in the Chicago public schools is made impossible for me 
by the events of the past week, not because of inability on my part to meet 
heavy responsibilities, but because my resignation and the published in- 
terviews would furnish ground for a misunderstanding as to my motives in 
resigning. 

You are sufficiently familiar with my method of speech to know that 
when I state I had absolutely no new position under consideration at the 
time of notifying the President of the Board of my intention to leave the 
schools, that the statement means exactly what appears on its face. 
Equally clear and direct is my statement that I intend entering into the 



26 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



duties of another educational position when a satisfactory one shall present 
itself. 

That no doubt shall exist as to my attitude the above is summed up 
as follows: First, I cannot withdraw my resignation ; second, I cannot 
continue to serve as a member of the teaching corps of the public schools 
of Chicago. 

With earnest wishes for the welfare of the schools and the teachers of 
Chicago, I am, Yours very truly, 

Ella F. Young. 



NIGHT SCHOOLS. 

During the last year some much needed legislation was 
passed by the Board of Education on the subject of night 
schools. A rule was enacted providing that teachers of day 
schools should not teach in night schools, unless suitable talent 
could not otherwise be provided. Controversy arose in the 
Board over the appointment of two night school principals, 
namely: C. E. Morse, late of Brown University, and Walter F. 
Slocum. These gentlemen were both employed in the day 
schools, and giving them the two positions was contrary to the 
rule of the Board, and it refused to concur in the recommenda- 
tion of the Superintendent. It was rumored at the time that 
the Superintendent had sent in his resignation, but the same 
never came into my hands, nor officially to the Board. 

Some time during the preceding year the Mayor appointed 
an educational committee to study the subject of public educa- 
tion. They duly entered upon their labors and finished their 
work some time during the year. Their report was published 
in book form and circulated generally throughout the city, and 
among the members of the board. The Commission made their 
report to the Mayor. It, however, was not officially trans- 
mitted, either by the Mayor or by the City Council, to the 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 27 

Board of Education, and no official action of any kind or char- 
acter was taken by the Board of Education relative to the Edu- 
cational Commission. The Board loaned it $5,000, which, up to 
the present writing, has not been repaid. 

REPORT OF W. S. CHRISTOPHER. 

I submit herewith the report of Dr. W. S. Christopher, a 
member of this Board, on Child Study and Scientific Pedagogy. 
I call particular attention to the immense value which is to 
flow from this scientific and profound study of the characteris- 
tics of the child from the physical side. 

The thanks, not only of this Board but the public at large, 
are due to Dr. Christopher for the inauguration of this valuable 
work in the Chicago public schools. I am convinced that it will 
and ought to be continued. It is one of the most decided 
advances, pedagogically, of the age. 

REPORT ON CHILD STUDY. 

Graham H. Harris Esq. , President Board of Education: 

Dear Sir — I submit herewith the report of the child study 
investigation done in certain of the Chicago Public schools. 
Tinder my direction, during the last four months of the school 
year. 

HISTORICAL. 

At a meeting of the Committee on Physical Culture held 
early in February, 1899, I presented to the committee a plan 
for making some anthropometric observations on children in 
the public schools. This plan met with the approval of the 
committee, which recommended to the Board the appointment 
of two assistants to carry out the work. At its meeting of 
February 8, 1899, the Board adopted the recommendation of 
the committee. The assistants secured were Mr. C. Victor 
Campbell, a principal in one of the evening schools, and a 
man well posted in child study work, and Mr. Fred. W. 
Smedley, who was unusually well qualified for the work 



28 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



contemplated. Mr. Smedley, at the time, was a teacher 
of child study in the University of Chicago, and for 
several years had been actively engaged there in laboratory^ 
work in physiological psychology, as well as having done 
special work with the pupils in Prof. John Dewey's model 
school. Among other things Mr. Smedley had made some 
modifications in Mosso's ergograph, which especially adapted it 
to the work in hand. On February 21, 1899, the Board, on the 
recommendation of the Committee on Physical Culture, ap- 
pointed these two gentlemen to carry on the work, and also- 
appropriated $150.00 for the purchase of apparatus. On March 
6, 1899, the work was begun in the Alcott School. This school 
was selected because it contained what may be called normal 
children. The pupils of this school are children of people in 
comfortable circumstances and are uniformly well fed and well 
clothed. The great majority of the pupils in this school are of 
American birth, and there is no large percentage of any foreign 
nationality to introduce any disturbing factors of a racial or 
national type. It is believed that the pupils of this school 
represent normal American children. 

After the completion of the work in the Alcott School the 
Burr School was visited, where the children in the kindergarten 
were examined. Later, examinations were made in the Thomas 
Hoyne School of kindergarten pupils and of two rooms of 
eighth grade pupils. The Alcott School has no kindergarten. 
Twenty pupils in an ungraded room were also examined. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE WORK. 

The scope of the investigation may be seen from the fol- 
lowing card, upon one of which the results of the tests were 
recorded, for each individual pupil: 

No 

Name Sex 

School Grade 

Teacher 



Birthday — Year Month Day 

Age — Years Months Days . , 

School standing. 

Attention 

Memory 

Grasp of work , 

Best work is in 

Deportment 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 



29 



Date 

Height with shoes 

Height of heel 

Net height . 

Height sitting 

Weight with clothes 

Weight of clothing, est . . . 

Net weight, est 

Ergograph— Hour 

Weight used 

■Centimeters traveled 

Work — Centm. grams 

Fatigue commences— sec. 

Duration of work , 

Dynamometer, R 

do L..,...., 

Lung capacity 

Audiometer, R , 

do L 



With certain special cases a wider range of tests was made, 
chiefly with the idea of helping the teacher to a more positive 
knowledge of the individual pupil. 

The pupils were eager to take the tests and entered into 
the work with much the same spirit they would show in com- 
petitive games. 

HEIGHT. 

The measurements in height were taken by means of the 
stadiometer used in the Bertillon system of measuring. This 
instrument was graded to millimeters. In measuring the height 
standing, care was taken to see that the subject placed the heels 
together and against the middle ot the back of the stadiometer, 
that the body was held erect, that the chin was drawn in, the 
back of the head was against the upright back of the stadio- 
meter, and that the arms himg by the sides. Measurements 
were taken with the shoes on. The heels were carefully meas- 
ured by means of calipers and their height deducted from the 
g'ross height of the child. In a number of test measurements 
taken in this manner and then taken with the shoes removed, 
the greatest individual variation was but two millimeters, while 
the average variation was less than a single millimeter. 

The height sitting was taken by means of the same instru- 
ment. The subject was seated on the base of the stadiometer. 
Care was taken to see that the body was held erect against the 
back of the stadiometer. 



3© PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



WEIGHT. 



The weight of the pupils was taken on a specially made 
and carefully tested pair of Fairbank's bathroom scales. The 
scales were graded to twenty-five gram divisions. The pupils 
were weighed in their ordinary school room clothing. About 
one-tenth of the pupils — 121 in number — brought back their 
clothing to be weighed, so that their exact net weights could be 
obtained, and the weight of their clothing could be made the 
basis for estimating the weight of the clothing of the others. 

The weight of the ordinary school room clothing, taken 
chiefly in the latter part of the month of May, ranged between 
the extremes of two and eight-tenths per cent and eight and 
two-tenths per cent of the gross weight of the pupil. The 
average weight of the clothing for all the pupils was five and 
five-tenths per cent of the gross weight. The boys' clothing 
was five and eight- tenths per cent of the entire weight ; that of 
the girls* was five and two-tenths per cent of the gross weight. 
These figures varied very little with age. The number of chil- 
dren was small whose clothing weighed over seven per cent of 
the body weight, and still smaller whose clothing went under 
four per cent. Obese children wore clothing lighter in propor- 
tion to their weight than that worn by others. The most vari- 
able element in the weight of the clothing was found to be the 
shoes, and especially the shoes worn by the boys. 

STRENGTH. 

The strength of the grip in each hand was tested by means 
of a two-spring grip dynamometer. The instrument used is 
smaller in diameter than the ordinary dynamometer and so 
better suited to the hands of the pupils tested. This manu- 
ometer was carefully graded in kilograms, and was tested from 
time to time to see that it did not lose its accuracy through the 
weakening of the springs. Readings were made to half-kilo- 
grams. The subject was allowed in this test to try again and 
again until he fell short of the best record he had made.* 

THE ERGOGRAPH. 

Mosso's ergograph, as modified by Mr. F. W. Smedley, 
paved the way for the study of the phenomena of fatigue and 
endurance. The apparatus consists of two parts, a fixing 
board, and a traveler mounted on a suitable frame. The fore- 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 3 1 

arm is placed upon the fixing board in the prone position, and 
held in place by suitable straps and clamps. There are also 
clamps to hold down the index and third fingers leaving the 
middle finger free. It is the design of the apparatus to hold 
the forearm so firmly in position that only the flexors of the 
middle finger can be brought into action. This it does not 
accomplish perfectly, but as the error is common to all those 
examined, the influence of the error is practically eliminated in 
comparative results. From the traveler two cords extend, 
one toward the fixing board, carrying a clamp to attach it to 
the free middle finger of the subject examined; the other, 
extending in the opposite direction over a pulley, is provided 
with a device for holding weights. Attached to the traveler 
and extending laterally, is an arm which carries a pen, which, in 
its turn, bears upon the surface of the drum of a kymograph. 
Attached to the side of the frame is an endless tape, which is 
carried forward with each return movement of the traveler, and 
thus sums up the total height which the weight has been lifted. 
The ergograph was operated in the following manner: The 
child's forearm being clamped in position, the cord from the 
traveler was clamped to its middle finger, and the pulley cord 
loaded with a weight equal to 7 per cent of the weight of the child. 
On flexing the finger, the weight was lifted, and the pen made 
a corresponding mark upon the kymograph. On extending the 
finger the traveler dropped back to its original position, the 
measuring tape was advanced a distance equal to the height 
the weight had been raised, and the return stroke on the kymo- 
graph was made. By the aid of a metronome these flexions 
and extensions of the finger were made each second, so that in 
90 seconds, the time employed in each experiment, the weight 
should be lifted 45 times. The actual number of lifts, however, 
varied occasionally from this number, reaching 48 or 49 in some 
instances, and not quite equalling 45 in others. In all cases, 
however, the work was continued for 90 seconds, and the 
amount of work done in centimeter-kilograms recorded. In 
the case of very obese children it is to be noted that 7 per cent 
of the total weight, including as it did 7 per cent of the weight of 
the fat, as well as 7 per cent of the weight of the active tissues 
of the body, proved to be excessive, and they were unable to 
continue to move the weight throughout the whole period of 
90 seconds. Nevertheless the actual work done came out in the 
centimeter-kilograms, and was suitable for comparisons. 

The ergogram, or tracing, as Mosso pointed out, is charac- 



teristic for each individual. It affords some ground for esti- 
mating the physical condition of the individual. The ergo- 
grams shown in Charts I and II illustrate something of this 
individual difference. One is that of an adult whose muscles 
are well controlled; the other is that of a so-called "nervous' 
child, one whose inhibition is defective, and whose efferent 
nerve impulses are erratic. The want of muscular control is 
shown by the irregularity in the heights of the lifts, the uneven 
spacing and the excessive number of lifts, showing the failure 
to keep time with the metronome. 




VITAL CAPACITY. 

In dealing with the amount of air one can expire after a 
full inspiration, the old term vital capacity has been used. In 
the tests of vital capacity a specially prepared wet spirometer 
was employed. This was carefully graded, the scale reading to 
twenty-five cubic centimeters. In this test the subject was 
allowed repeated trials, until he ■ fell short of his former en 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 33 

deavors. The aim of those making the test was to get the best 
record that it was possible for each pupil to make. 

HEARING. 

Hearing was tested by means of the audiometer recently 
invented by Dr. C. E. Seashore of the Iowa State University. 
The instrument is well adapted to school tests; and, by means 
of it, it was possible to grade the pupils in the matter of hear- 
ing in a manner that must have proved helpful to their teachers. 

It will be of general interest to note that there is an in- 
crease with advancing age in the number of children who are 
hard of hearing. The number of pupils whose hearing is so 
far subnormal in one or both ears as to place them at a disad- 
vantage, increased from six per cent among the six-year-old 
pupils to thirty-three per cent among those fourteen years old. 

TABLES AND CHARTS OF NORMS. 

An important part of the work of this investigation was 
the establishing of a series of norms or averages. These are 
given in the following tables; and that the results may appear 
more quickly to the eye the matter has been charted. Certain 
minor irregularities in these lines are probably due to the small 
number of subjects tested. It is hoped that in the future a 
larger collection of data may be made the basis of a more ade- 
quate discussion. 

Table I, gives the norms determined in all the observa- 
tions. Charts III to VII inclusive are drawn from the figures 
given in the table. 



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REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 



CHART III. 



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PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



CHART IV. 
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15 
lO 
5 


',-■ 









































































































REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 



37 



CHART V. 

Work on the Ergograph. 



AGE- 5 7 a 9 lO 11 12. 13 14 15 \6 17 

KILOGRAM 
OHTMETCKS 



500 



400 



300 



200 



100 























\ 


1 








• 
















r 


f 


















■ 


) 
























^ 




















/ 






f 
















/ 




r" 

* 
f 


* 






■ 










} 


■ 


/ 

1 






* 










/ 


/ 


/' 


















/ 


« 














' 






^ 


/ 


y 


















/" 























PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



CHART VI. 

Vital Capacity. 



ACE' 4 5 a 7 S 9 10 11 IS t3 14 15 IC 


3200 
3100 

sooo 

S0OO 

saoo 




















1 


































































































1 
























/ 


eeoo 
esoo- 
eioo 

S300 

eeoo 
aioo 

2000 

tgoo 

ISOO 
1TOO 
160O 
ISOO 

woo 

130O 
ISOO 
HOC 
lOOO 

eoo 
soo 

lOO 

aoo 

SOO 

*ioo 

300 
EOO 
lOO 

o 
















































































































































,.-- 


















/ 




■?..-- 




















/ 


<>* 




















/ 




/ 




















X 






















y 


























..-' 




















y 


■'■' 




















y 


y 




















^ 


..--- 




















r- 
























' ■• 






















/. 














































/ 




























































■ 





























































































































































OF THE PRESIDENT. 



CHART VII. 
Strength of Grip. 



AGE.- 4 S 7 S 9 lO 11 12 IS 14 13 16 IT 

KILOORAMS ~ 

























p 


I 
























il 


z 






















1. 


% 


f 




















/, 


^. 


^ 


'■> 
























-% 


# 














/ 


i 


/ / 
















^ 


^ 


J 


^ 


' 
















^ 


5^ 


;./ 




















'^ 
























>= 



























40 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



The foregoing tables and charts afford some interesting 
information. The tables and charts relating to height stand- 
ing, height sitting, and weight with clothing, although so 
much work has already been done in these lines, are important 
to us as they relate to Chicago children. Their particular 
utility, however, in this investigation is shown later in some of 
the comparative tables and charts. 

On examining Chart V, on **Work on the Ergograph," 
it is found that the girls are everywhere below the boys in 
endurance, that this difference is nearly constant during the 
first four years of school life, and that after the age of nine the 
divergence between the sexes increases, the boys increasing in 
endurance more rapidly than the girls. Tabulating the differ- 
ences in ergographic work for the different ages gives the 
following : 



TABLE II 



6.. 

7.. 

8.. 

9.. 
10.. 
11.. 



Superiority 

of Boys 
in Cen. Kg. 

22 

17 

27 

19 

57 

41 



Age. 



12. 
13. 
14, 
15, 
16. 



Superiority 

of Boys 
in Cen. Kg. 

82 

70 

, 108 

112 

190 



This table alone is rather misleading, but reduced to per- 
centages gives the following: 



TABLE III. 



Age. 



6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 



Percentage Girls' 

Endurance 

is of Boys'. 

79 

87 

84 

90 

76 

83 



Age. 



12, 
18. 
14. 
15. 
16. 



Percentage GIrlSt 

Endurance 

is of Boys*. 

..74 

81 

75 

75 

68 



On the average the girls' strength is 79 per cent of the 
boys'. If these results be true, they may have some bearing 
on the question of co-education and they would seem to indi- 
cate that somewhere in the upper grades, the sexes might with 
advantage to both be separated in instruction, and possibly 
larger deniands made of the boys. In this connection it must 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 4 1 

ft 

be said, however, that the total number of pupils examined, is 
too small to warrant hard and fast conclusions being drawn. 
The ** Vital Capacity" chart, like the ergographic chart, indi- 
cates increasing divergence between boys and girls, with in- 
creasing age, and to the advantage of the boys. The same 
condition is also illustrated by the grip chart. This chart also 
seems to indicate that marked differences in the strength of the 
two hands does not occur in boys until after 14 years, and in 
girls until after 13. 

COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL AND INTELLECTUAL CAPACITY. 

Some years ago Prof. W. Townsend Porter, then of St. 
Louis, now of Harvard Medical School^ made anthropometric 
observations on a large number of children in the St. Louis 
schools. Among his observations was one to the effect that 
the brighter children in a room had a greater mean weight than 
the mean weight of the whole room, from which he formulated 
the dictum that intellectual capacity in school children is a 
function of body weight. Although this conclusion of Porter's 
has been much criticised, it has always appeared to me to be 
one of great importance. At the outset, therefore, of these 
tests I determined to re-investigate Porter's problem, and to 
that end put at the top of each card certain data to be supplied 
by the teacher with reference to each pupil, and comprising 
marking on a scale of 10 in attention, memory, and grasp of 
work, from which it was thought a reliable average school 
standing could be computed, and subsequently used in compar- 
ison with the physical data obtained by the trained obseryers, 
Messrs. Smedley and Campbell. It was found, however, that 
on account of the range of age of the pupils in each room that a 
satisfactory presentation of the subject could not be made with 
the small number of pupils examined. 

In place of the plan contemplated, one perhaps more 
reliable has been employed. The grading of the schools is 
•entirely upon an intellectual basis, and the grade standing of a 
large group of pupils may be considered to indicate fairly their 
intellectual capacity. In the Alcott School there were 126 
•eleven- year-old pupils and 138 twelve-year-old pupils. The 
-eleven-year-old pupils were scattered through the grades from 
the second to the seventh inclusive, and the twelve-year-old 
pupils were found in the third to the eighth grades. 

These ages were selected because there were more pupils 



42 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



tested of these ages than any other. Then again the pupils of 
less age are not so widely distributed through the grades, and 
if an age above twelve were taken it would be found that some 
had gone into the high schools and so were beyond the range of 
our present observation. Enough has been done with other 
ages to show that the law holds good. 

The following tables, IV to XIII, and charts VIII to XII, 
show the physical peculiarities of these two groups of children 
in net height, weight with clothing, endurance (ergograph 
work), vital capacity, and strength of grip of the right hand. 
The fact that the charts give broken lines instead of smooth 
curves is probably due to the small number of pupils tested. 



TABLE IV. 

Mean height of the twelve-year-old pupils of the different grades: 



GRADES. 



III.. 
IV.. 
V... 
VI.. 
VII. 
VIII 



No. 
Measured. 



Mean Hei£:ht 
in Millimeters. 



1 
19 
42 
41 
30 

5 



1354 
1431 
1407 
1441 
1475 
1504 



Averasre 
A^e, 



12 yrs. 2 
12 yrs. 4 
12 yrs. 5 
12 yrs. 5 
12 yrs. 7 
12 yrs. 6 



mo. 7 da. 
mo. 28 da. 
mo. 13 da. 
mo. 18 da, 
mo. 22 da. 
mo. 27 da. 



TABLE V. 
Mean height of the eleven-year-old pupils of the different grades: 



GRADES. 



II . 
III. 
IV. 

v.. 

VI. 
VII 




Mean Height 
in Millimeters. 



Average 
Age. 



1314 11 yrs. 5 mo. 29 da. 

1350 11 yrs. 7 mo. 7 da. 

1369 11 yrs. 5 mo. 16 da. 

1382 111 yrs. 6 mo. 2 da. 

1427 ; 11 yrs. 6 mo. 26 da. 

1474 U yrs. 7 mo. 15 da. 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 



43 



MiaiMEILRS 



iSZ5 



15O0 



1475 



mbo 



mzb 



1400 



1375 



1350 



1325 



13QO 



n 



CHART VIII. 
Net Height. 



nr 



School Grades. 
IV V 



TI 



Til 



Tin 





















\ 




















^7 












/ 1 








!\ 




/ * < 

/ /^ 


1 








f- 




^ / 

/ 
/ 

f 








/ 


1 




/ 
/ 

/ 






» 




/ 

*' 


.-'" 
./ 










/ 
/ 


/ 

t 

/ 

t 
t 

f 




- 








/ 
/ 















44 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



TABLE VI. 

Mean weight with clothmg of the twelve-year-old pupils of the 
diflferent school grades : 



GRADES. 


Number 

WefHhB'l. 


MeHn Weisht 
inKiloirram^. 


AverHtfe 
Aire. * 


III... 


1 
19 
42 
41 
30 

5 


28.125 
85.500 
34.525 
' 34.450 
87.788 
42.025 


12 yrs. 2 mo. 7 da. 
12 yrs. 4 mo. 28 da. 
12 yrs. 5 mo. 13 da. 
12 yrs. 5 mo. 18 da. 
12 yrs. 7 mo. 22 da. 
12 yrs. 6 mo. 27 da. 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 





TABLE VII. 

Mean weight with clothing of the| eleven-year-old pupils of the 
different school grades : 



GRADES. 


Number 
Weighed. 


Mean Weight 
in KiloKratns. 


A venire 
Age. 


II 


2 

4 

44 

50 

20 

6 

• 


28.613 
80.400 
31.788 
81.512 
35.850 
40.225 


11 yrs. 5 mo. 29 da. 
11 yrs. 7 mo. 7 da. 
11 yrs. 5 mo. 16 da. 
11 yrs. 6 mo. 2 da. 
11 yrs. 6 mo. 26 da. 
11 yrs. 7 mo. 15 da. 


Ill 


IV 


V 


VI 

VIII 





REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 



45 



KlUKiRAMS 



44 



42 



40 



36 



36 



34 



32 



SO 



n 



CHART IX. 

Weight with Clothing. 



m 



School Grades. 
IV^ IT 



TI 



Tn 



Tin 



28 





























/ 












1 
1 


/ 










< 


1 i 

/ 


r 










if 










r 




1 










/ 


1 

/ 
/ 


} 








A 




1 

1 
•■-••# 




- 




* 
* 


7 




- 




• 





46 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



TABLE VIII. 

Mean work done on the Ergograph in ninety seconds by the twelve- 
year-old pupils of the different school grades: 


GRADES. • 


No. 
Tested. 


Work done In 
Cent. Kgs. 


Average 
Afire. 


III 


1 
19 
42 
41 


246 

307.4 

270.1 

271.2 

802.4 

318 


12 3rrs. 2 mo. 7 da. 
12 yrs. 4 mo. 28 da. 
12 yrs 5 mo. 13 da. 
12 yrs. 5 mo. 18 da. 
12 yrs. 7 mo. 22 da. 
12 yrs. 6 mo. 27 da. 


IV 

V 


VI 


VII 

VIII 


30 
5 





TABLE IX. 

Mean work done on the Ergograph by eleven -year-old pupils of 
the different school grades : 



GRADES. 


No. 
Tested. 


Work done in 
Cent. Eks. 


Average 
Age. 


II 


I 

44 

50 

20 

6 


173 

195 

245.6 

237.8 

269.8 

302 


11 yrs. 5 mo. 29 da. 
11 yrs. 7 mo. 7 da. 
11 )rrs. 5 mo. 16 da. 
11 yrs. 6 mo. 2 da. 
11 yrs. 6 mo 26 da. 
11 yrs. 7 mo. 15 da. 


Ill 


IV 

V 


VI 


VII 





REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 



47 



KlUHiRAMS 
350 



n 



325 



300 



-275 



250 



225 



200 



CHART X. 
Work with Ergograph. 



m 



School Grades. 



IV 



VI 



vn 



175 



150 



125 



^^^. 



too 







- 














A 






^f^ 


y^ 


• 


1 


A 












/ 




f 


^A<^ 








/ 


/ 
/ 

/ 


/ 










1 
1 

/ 

1 
1 
t 

/ 


1 
t 

< 










* 


9 












,-■ 








■ 


• 

































48 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



TABLE X. 

Mean vital capacity of the twelve-year-old pupils of the different 
school grades: 



GRADES. 


No. 
Te«ted. 


Vital Capacity 
in Cub. Cent*8. 


ATerage 
Age, 


Ill 


1 
19 
42 
41 
80 

5 


1700 
1650 
1763 
1925 
1863 
2400 


12 yrs. 2 mo. 7 da. 
12 yrs. 4 mo. 28 da. 
12 yrs. 5 mo. IS da. 
12 yrs. 5 mo. 18 da. 
12 yrs. 7 mo. 22 da. 
12 yrs. 6 mo. 27 da. 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 





TABLE XI. 

Mean vital capacity of the eleven-year-old pupils of the different 
grades : 



GRADES. 


No. 
Tested. 


Vital Capacity 
In Cub. Cent's. 


ATerage 
Ave. 


II 


2 

4 . 
44 
50 
20 

6 


1400 
1588 
1650 
1638 
1850 
1675 


11 )rrs. 5 mo. 29 da. 
11 yrs. 7 mo. 7 da. 
11 yrs. 5 mo. 16 da. 
11 yrs. 6 mo. 2da. 
11 yrs. 6mo.26da. 
11 yrs. 7 mo. 16 da. 


Ill 


IV 


•V 


VI 


VII 





REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 



49 



CUBIC 

CEHnnHiRs n 

ZHOO 



2300 



2200 



21 OO 



2OO0 



1900 



1800 



1700 



1600 



1500 



CHART XI. 

Vital Capacity 



m 



School Grades. 



W 



TI 



vn 



vni 



1400 



























c 


/ 












o 


/ 












/ 












/\, 


/ 


- 








/ 






1 






J 


/, 




1 

\ 
\ 






--' 




/^ 


J 
\ 


* 






1 
1 
/ 

/ 
/ 

• 
9 
t 
1 
1 












t 
1 

$ 

1 

t 
1 
t 
I 

t 


r 













so 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



TABLE XII. 

Mean strength of grip of the right hand of the twelve-year-old 
pupils of the different school grades : 



GRADES. 



Ill . 

IV.. 

V... 

VI.. 

VII. 

VIII 



No. 
Tested. 



1 
19 
42 
41 
80 

5 



Streniflh 
InKilogrums. 



12 

18 

19.5 

21 

JiO 

25 



Average 
Afire. 



12 yrs. 2 mo. 
12 yrs. 4 mo. 
12 yrs. 5 mo. 
12 yrs, 5 mo. 
12 yrs. 7 mo. 
12 yrs. 6 mo. 



7 da. 
28 da. 
13 da. 
18 da. 
22 da. 
27 da. 



TABLE XIII. 

Mean strength of g^ip of the right hand of the eleven-year-old 
pupils of the different school grades : 



GIUDES. 


No. 
Tested. 


StreDfifth in 
Eilopnrame. 


Average 
Age. 


II 


2 


12.5 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19.5 


11 yrs. 5 mo. 29 da. 
11 yrs. 7 mo. 7 da. 
11 yrs. 5 mo. 16 da. 
11 yrs. 6 mo. 2 da. 
11 yrs. 6 mo. 26 da. 
11 yrs. 7 mo. 15 da. 


Ill 


4 
44 
50 


IV 

V 


VI 


20 
6 


VII 





REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 



51 



CHART XTI. 
Strength of Ru;ht Hand. 



School Grades. 



26 


n 


in 


IV 


V 


TI 


Vli 


vm 
















2^ 














/ 












si 


zz 
zo 












M 


f 




1 
1 

■ 

; 
1 




^ 












^r 








18 
16 








^ 


y'' 










/ .'-''' 














/^'' 










14 
12 




y / 
/ / 
/ / 

1 


*r 








1 
1 


1 




/ 


j 






: 1 : 

:. t 

1 1 

i 

1 1 ■ 
' 1 

i ; 








i 
1 






4rk 






1 


j 




i 
i 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



It is clear from the foregoing charts and tables, that 
on the average those pupils who have made great intellectual 
advancement are on the whole taller, heavier, stronger, 
possessed of greater endurance, and larger breathing capacity 
than those who have made less advancement. These observa- 
tions also indicate that a physical factor, as well as the intel- 
lectual one now entirely relied upon, should be introduced in 
the grading of pupils. This physical factor is particularly 
desirable in determining the fitness of children to enter the 
first grade, where so many children under the legal school age, 
are entered by misguided parents to the great detriment of the 
children. 

In this connection, mention must be made of a fact well- 
known to all. In every school there are a few pupils who are 
small in stature and light in weight, and yet exceedingly bright 
in their school work. It is not very uncommon to find that the 
best pupil in the room is the smallest, and possibly the youngest, 
These small bright pupils constitute a class by themselves, they 
are exceptions to the general rule, and must, like all excep- 
tions, receive special consideration. Such children cannot be 
considered normal, and I venture the assertion that the true 
explanation of them will be found to be of greater medical 
than pedagogical interest. 

PHYSICAL EXTREMES IN EACH ROOM. 

In Table XIV. are given the extremes in height, height 
sitting, weight with clothing, work on the ergograph, grip of 
right hand, and vital capacity in each of the several rooms 
examined — in all, twenty-eight rooms. ThCvSe figures, as to 
the twenty-four rooms in the Alcott School are graphically 
represented in charts XIII. to XVII. 

Chart XIII. giving extremes in height, shows that the 
tallest pupil in the first grade is but very little shorter than the 
shortest pupil in the eighth grade, the actual difference being- 
only eighteen millimeters or less than three-quarters of an 
inch. Between these two grades the statures overlap each 
other in all the rooms. The greatest range of stature happens 
to be found in one of the fifth grade rooms, and amounts to 
532 millimeters or twenty-one inches. I cannot conceive 
of a more eloquent plea for adjustable desks than this; 
and not only desks adjustable in name, but desks which 

can be actually adjusted. Chart XV, showing extremes of 

• 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 



53 



work on the ergograph, is most instructive. The divergence 
of the extremes of endurance in the first grade is comparatively 
slight, showing that there the pupils are fairly evenly balanced 
in power, the minimum amounting to 28.3 per cent of the max- 
mum. With each succeeding grade the divergence of the ex- 
tremes increases until in the seventh grade the endurance of 
the weakest pupil amounts to only 18 per cent, and in the 
eighth grade to 18.5 per cent of that of the strongest. The 
chart shows the necessity of a very careful study of this prob- 
lem, the determining of the causes of the phenomenon, and as 
far as possible removing these causes. Even before causes are 
determined the fact itself calls for greater elasticity in the 
work of the upper grades. 

Charts XVI and XVII confirm the teachings of Chart XV. 
At present the work in physical culture is done by rooms; the 
rooms are graded on an intellectual basis exclusively. This is, 
on its face, bad for the work in physical culture, but how bad 
it is could not be known until such facts as those furnished by 
these tables of extremes had been worked out. If physical 
culture is to accomplish the most possible for the pupils of our 
schools, its classes must be graded upon a physical basis, and 
the work adapted to the needs of the pupil. It is believed that 
this can be done without too great interference with the other 
school work. Certainly these observations show the great ne- 
cessity for the work of physical culture. 



TABLE XIV. 



VARIATIONS IN THE SAME SCHOOL ROOM. 



Einderflrarten Burr School. Sadie F. Smith, teacher. 



Age ; 

Height 

Heivht sitting 

Weight (with clothing:). 

Grip of right hand 

Vital capacity 



Lowest. 



4:0:25 

92^ mm. 

fi'i'i mm. 

13.725 kff. 

3 kg. 
600 ccm. 



Highest. 



7:0:24 

1176 mm. 

688 ram. 

21.675 kg. 

12 kg. 
1100 ccm. 



Percent- 

affe. 

Lowest is 

of Highest. 



58 
78 
84 
63 
25 
55 



54 



PUIJLIC SCHOOLS. 



Kinderf?arteii Iloyno School. Mariraret Forsyth, tcai-lior. 



Lowest. I IliKhcst. 



Aire "i rr.iu 

lleiKlit St'iii nini. 

IleiKlit silt Jnu W2 mm. 

Weight (wltii tjlntliliiK) ; 12.5HX) kjr. 

(rripof ritrht hand :i k;r. 

Vital capacity ' 550 i:cm. 



H:5:l 

1111 mm. 

('.30 mm. 

ai.TTSkR. 

1" k»r. 
l.'ttiO ccm. 



Percent- 
, afire. 
' Lowest 18 
of Hiprhest. 

54 
I '" 

I 59 

30 
43 



First Gradt; Alcott Scliool. Louisa IJulire, tea<lK'r. 



Affe 

UeiL'ht 

Ileifrbt sitting 

Weif^ht (with clothiiifr) 
Work on er^roirraph. . . 
Grip of rl;;ht liaixl . . . 
Vital capar'ity 



5:r.:\i3 


»:4:1 


59 


lOlii mm 


l^.')]! mm. 


81 


57;! mm. 


0!H> mm. 


&-' 


l."» HT5 ktf. 


;.»?.* K) kg. 


58 


iU kg. cm. 


14J» kjr. cm. 


27 


5kL'. 


IHkic. 


28 


7iM com. 


1.375 com. 


51 



First Grade AhMJtr Sciiool. Estelle Eckardt, teachiT. 



Atfft 5:5:7 

Ileipht , 1031 mm . 

Ilei/rht sitting 5H-J mm. 

Weitflit (With clothing) 14.1KK) kir. 

Wi>rk on t'r^otrraph ' 51 ki; cm. 

Grip of vli:hx hind 5 kir. 

Vital capacity 7U0 ccm. 



H-8:18 

ViiiH mm. 

(3K0 mm. 

27.850 kir. 

153 kf;. cm. 

13 kir. 
1475 ccm. 



62 
84 
86 
54 
81 
38 
47 



First Grade Alcott Suhool. Edythe Olson, teachttr. 



Aire 

Heit'ht 

Heitrht sittimr 

Weiglit (witli cl«. tiling') 
Work on cr^roirraph — 

Grip right liand 

Vital capacity 



0:1 :1S 

1074 mm. 

5K5 mm. 

15 ;i.')0 ktf. 

53 kir. cm. 

5 kir. 

'jr)0 c<:m. 



!) 3:18 

13.»2mm. 

737 mm . 

3t).250 kir. 

252 k|r. cm . 

IH kir. 

1500 ccm. 



64 
81 
79 
42 
21 
28 
63 



Fir.st Grade Alcott School. Mabel K. P. Inskecp, iejich«'r. 



Aire 0:0:14 

Height ' inso mm . 

Height sittinir .X! mm. 

Weight (with cloi hin^'j ' 17..Vi'> kg. 

Work <in ergograpii ' 5t» kir. cm . 

Grip right hand 7 kg. 

Vital capacity ' 'Ji'Uccm. 



9:8:10 


62 


1282 mm. 


84 


701 mm. 


84 


'.'.s.r,75 kir. 


61 


182 kg. cm. 


82 


15 kg. 


47 


1810 ccm. 


.50 


_ . - 





\ 



REPORT OF THE PRESIUEXT. 



55 



Second Grade Alcott School. Blanche Quinlan, teacher. 



Lowest. 



Arc 

Height 

Height sitting? 

AVeight (with clothing) 
Work on ergograpti. . . . 

Grip right hand 

Vital capacity 



7:8 14 

lllUmin. 

UIO mm. 

17. COO kg. 

73 kir. cm. 

Gkff. 
875 ccm . 




9:1:9 

138imm. 

75a ram. 

32 875 kg. 

290 kir. cm. 

18 kjr. 
1825 ccm. 



Peixjent- 

age. 
Lowest is 
of Highest. 

80 
81 
81 
54 
25 
33 
48 



Second Grade Alcott School. Rose A. Altschul, teacher. 



Age 

Height 

Height sitting 

Weight (with clothing). 
Work on ergograph . . . . 

Grip of right hand 

Vital capacity 



6:6:7 

lies mm. 

604 mm. 

18.325 kg. 

92kir. cm. 

7 kg. 

800 ccm. 



10:1:11 

1340 mm. 

735 mm. 

63.200 kg. 

272 kg. cm. 

18 kg. 
1800 ccm. 



64 
84 
82 
29 
34 
39 
44 



Second Grade Alcott School. Marian Wilziuski, teacher. 



Age 7:5:22 

Height 1178 mm. 

Height sitting 040 ram. 

Weight (with clothing) 19. 125 kg. 

Work on ergograph 53 kg. cm . 

Grip of right hand ' 8 kg. 

Vital capacity 1000 cucm. 



11:6:13 


65 


1364 mm. 


86 


734 mm. 


87 


35.150 kg. 


54 


363 kg. cm. 


15 


23 kg. 


35 


2000 ccm. 


50 



Second Grade Alcott School. Mabel H. Christie, teacher. 



Age 

Heiglit 

Height sitting 

Weight (with clothing) 
Work on ergograph . . . 

Grip of right hand 

Vital capacity 



8:0:19 


10:7:24 


76 


1167 mm. 


1374 mm. 


85 


651 mm. 


741 mm. 


88 


21.525 kg. 


33.650 kg. 


64 


88 kg. cm. 


268 kg. cm. 


33 


6 kg. 


18 kg. 


as 


1000 ccm. 


1700 ccm. 


59 



Second Grade Alcott School. Hilma Enander, teacher. 



Age 

Height 

Height sitting 

Weight (with clothing) 

Work on ergograph 

Strength of right hand. 
Vital capacity 



7:5:2 

114Q mm. 

620 mm. 

19.825 kg. 

99 kg. cm, 

7 kg. 
1000 ccm. 



11:5:14 

1350 mm. 

721 mm. 

34.225 kg. 

271 kg. cm. 

21 kg. 

1875 ccm. 



65 
85 
86 
58 
37 
33 
53 



^6 



PUIILIC SCHOOLS. 



Third Grade Alcott School. Sara A. Ryan, teacher. 



Aee 

Heljrhr 

Height Ritttni; 

Wf lirht (with dnthiiif?) 
Work on ercouraph — 

Grip of rlffhr haiid 

Vital ca[>aciiy 



7.9:11 

Um mm. 

t>44 mm. 

'«'i.75Uk;r. 

Ill kir. cm. 

sk«. 
VXo ccm. 





Percent- 


IIlKhest. 


aipe. 




Lowest Is 




of HiKhest. 


11:1:19 


70 


1404 mm. 


83 


745 mm. 


88 


•«5...'75 kfr. 


08 


314 k(r. cm. 


&% 


•JO kff. 


40 


aao cum. 


58 



Third (imde Alccitt S^'hool. Laura Mclntire. teacher. 



Atrp 

llclirht 

TMtfht sittfiif? 

Weiirht ^with clothing) 
Work on erjTMirraph — 
strenjcth of riuht hnnd 
Vital caimcity 



8:3:11 

V2\^ mm. 

i'm mm. 

itUiaXi kR. 

1-^*2 kg. cm. 

10 Ktr. 
1100 ccm. 



12aJ:7 

1470 mm. 

77.'> mm 

.58.^35 kir. 

314 ki; cm. 

'22 kg. 
'J075ccm. 



68 
83 
86 
41 
49 
45 
58 



Fourth Grade Alcott School. Amanda V. Anderson, teacher. 



Ak«! ! 8:2:13 

Height I lHi4 mm. 

Hfti^ht sit t int; ' &30 mm 

Weiirht (wiih chithint') | 'J^'.V.'iO kg. 

Wcirk on erjfojfi-Hph 133 kic. cm. 

Stiviitrth c)r ii:;Iit hand s kg. 

Vital capar;ity I lOoO ccm. 



12:5:*i4 

14ft5 m m. 

758 ram. 

41.850 kff. 

342 kfr. cm. 

19 kK. 
2025 ccm. 



65 
7« 

S8 
51 
89 

4 
49 



Fourth Grade Alcott School. Amanda Henderson, teacher. 



Agt^ 

Heljrhr 

Ileijrhr. sittlnif 

Weljrht (Willi rlothintf). 
Work on argogvavU. . . 
.strenirlh of ri(,'ht hand. 
Vital capa«!ity 



»:6;l 

11% mm. 

t)72 mm. 

ai.700kj?. 

130 kir. cm. 

irJ5 ccm. 



14:1:4 

1523 mm. 

HIH mm. 

54.800 kg. 

45G ke. cm. 

•■iSkg. 
21011 ccm. 



71 
79 
Si 
40 
SO 
92 
47 



Fourth (Jrade Alcott Sdiool. KatlnTine Keir. teacher. 



Aire 

Height 

Heiirht sittinir 

Weight (with chit hin/r) 
W«»rk on erir'>(rrH|>h — 
srren/rth of riuht hsind. 
Vital caj)acity 



0:4:10 

1201 mm. 

627 mm. 

20.800 kfir. 

yy ktr. cm. 

kg. 
107."S com. 



14:6:0 

1520 mm. 

815 mm. 

.53.200 kg. 

120 kff. cm, 

31 kfr. 
2050 ccm. 



65 
79 
77 
89 
24 
29 
41 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 



57 



Fourth Grade Alcott School. Fannie T. Farrell, teaoher 



Age 

Height 

Heiffht sitting 

Weight (witii clothing) 
Work on ergograph. . . . 
Strength of right hand. 
Vital capacity 



Lowest. 



tt:6:23 

11»1 mm. 

635 mm. 

20 775 leg. 

128 kg. cm. 

10 kg. 

1075 ccm. 



Highest. 



14:3:22 

1528 mm. 

818 mm. 

50.400 kg. 

525 kg. cm. 

27 kg. 
2600 ccm . 



Percent- 
age. 
Lowest is 
of Highest. 



67 
78 
78 
41 
24 
87 
41 



Fifth Grade Aloott School. Lillie A. Hussander, teacher, 



Age ' 10:0:18 

JBeight 1213mm. 

Height sitting i 665 mm. 

Weight (with clothing) ' 23.200 kg. 

Work on ergograph 108 kg. cm. 

-Strength of right hand 10 kg. 

Vital capacity 1275 ccm. 



14:3:12 


72 


1574 mm. 


77 


814 mm. 


82 


46.775 kg. 


50 


462 kg. cm. 


23 


29 kg. 


34 


2875 ccm. 


44 



Fifth Grade Alcott School. Frances M. Silliman, teacher. 



Age 

Height 

Height fitting 

Weight (with clothing) 
Work on ergograph. . . 
Strength of right hand 
Vital capacity 



10:7:12 

1245 mm. 

655 mm. 

21.475 kg. 

75 kg. cm. 

8 kg. 
1000 ccm. 



15:8:0 

1777 mm. 

866 mm. 

55.125 kg. 

587 kg. cm. 

27 kg. 
2350 ccm. 



68 
70 
76 
39 
13 
30 
43 



Sixth Grade Alcott School. May A. Behan, teacher. 



Age 

Height 

Height sitting 

Weight (with clothing) 

Work on ergograpii 

Strength of right hand. 
Vital capacity 



9:10:19 

1260 mm. 

667 mm. 

25 550 kg. 

163 kg. cm. 

10 kg. 
1075 ccm. 



14.7:11 

1646 mm. 

870 mm. 

56.625 kg. 

628 kg. cm. 

35 kg. 
2525 ccm. 



68 

< « 
45 
26 
29 
42 



Sixth Grade Alcott School. Elizabeth B. Parkes, teacher. 



Age 

Height 

Height sitting 

Weight (with clothing) 

Work on ergograph 

Strength of right hand 
Vital capacity 



9:9:0 

1345 mm. 

710 mm. 

28.250 kg. 

141 kg. cm. 

14 kg. 
1C50 ccm. 



15:8:16 

1654 mm. 

859 mm. 

.55.475 kg. 

646 kg. cm. 

41kg. 
3125 ccm. 



62 
81 
83 
51 
22 
34 
34 



58 



ri'IJLlC SCHOOLS. 



Scvenih Grudu Alcott Si'IumiI. Fannie. S. Roberts, teHflior. 



Aire 

Height 

HeltfhtKitthic 

Weifdit (with (.'lotliing) 
Work on erf^oKrapli . . . 
Stnnigth of ritflit hand 
Vital oapiiciry 



howe-st. 



ll:5:-,»4 
l^i^Vinun. 
(ilM nun. 

IfjS k^. riu. 

IT) kir. 
1400 ccni. 



IIi;riiOst. 



iri:S:8 

i;:i'> nun. 

s'.r, linn. 

(iiJIjOkl?. 

Ttl ktr <'ni. 

W kjr. 
:j? icni. 



' Perct*nt- 
aife. 

LflWf St In 

of Hiarhesr. 



73 
1 1 

78 
47 
*! 

38 



Seventh (iradc Alcott Scliool. Jeunt'tti* L. Bacon, teaclier. 



Aj,'« 

Ileitfht 

Heiffht sitting; 

Weiiirht (witli t'lothinK) 
Work on eri;oirnip)>. . . 
Strength of right hand 
Vital capacity 



13:2:14 

IH-.t; mm. 

iV.i'i mm. 

m.an) k;r 

l.")3 kjr. cm. 

11 kif. 
1 4'**r> ccni . 



iri:il:0 

17(n.' mm. 

M<2 mm. 

r)».(h» ka. 

T4S kir cm, 

4i.r)kk'. 

8.VJ5 ccm . 



58 

78 

t I 

52 
21 
.S6 
41 



Seventh (iradc Alcott Si'luml. Blanche C. Turner, teacher. 



Age 

IlelKht 

Height 8ittini; 

Weight » Willi clothing) 
Work on ergogratih. . . 
Strength of right, hand 
Vital capacity 



11:8:12 


16:4:14 


G9 


V^i'u mm. 


1715 mm. 


74 


ti7U mm. 


(•02 mm. 


75 


81.550 kg. 


«8.525 kg. 


46 


04 kg. cm. 


1050 kg. cm. 


10 


12 kg. 


55 kg. 


21 


i:iriOccm. 


at'uOccm. 


87 



Eighth (irade Ahrott School. .JesHle A. Phelps, teacher. 



Age I 12:5:4 

Height I I3'.»n mm. 

Height sitting 711 mm. 

Weight (wir.h chithing) ! 81 .775 kg. 



Work f)n ergograph 
Strength of right hand 
Vital capacity 



154 kg. cm, 

17.5 kg. 

1800 ccm . 



H5:2:-.*7 

172>< mm. 

a82mm. 

7*'. 825 kg. 

0(58 kg. cm. 

4»'..5 kg. 

8H25 ccm . 



I 4 

75 
78 
44 
16 
38 
34 



Eighth Grade Alcott School. Anna K. Burke, teacher. 



Ago 12:2:15 

Height 1840 mm. 

Heitrht sitting 705 mm. 

Weight ( with <-lot h.-s) ;^) 625 kg. 

Work on ergoirraph 142 kg. c-m. 

Strength of right hand 14.5 kL'. 

Vital capacity 1500 ccm. 



ir,:io « 


72 


178S luni. 


77 


H***.* mm. 


79 


72.550 kg. 


4-^ 


07J) kg. cm. 


21 


40 kg. 


86 


8275 ccm. 


46 



RKPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 



59 



Elffhth Grade Iloyne Scliool. Annie (r. Ahearn, teacher. 



Lowest. 



Hif^hest. 



Aire , 13:10:17 

Height 14(i7 mm. 

Heiirht sittinir 7W mm. 

Weight (with clotlilnj?) ; :^ J.or.') k^. 

Work on ei'KoffrHph 2;21 kt;. em. 

St ren^th of ritrht hand I *J1 Kg. 

Vital capacity i ls-^5 ccm. 

___ I _ ._} 

Eifchth Grade Hoyue School. S. Autrnsta Stimpson, teacher. 



lT:S:ai 

1771 mm. 

037 mm. 

08.:»2r) ktf. 

93U ktr. om. 

ns ktf. 

tli') ccm. 



Percent- 

aifo. 
Lowest i.s 
of HiKhest. 

7S 
70 

7S 

r>i 

3G 

44 



Apre 

HelKlit 

Heiuht Hittini; 

Weitrbt (with clothing) 
Work on eigograph. . . 
Strength of right hand 
Vital capacity 



13:4:0 

14'«^ mm. 

753 mm. 

:i'>.375 k}:. 

223 kg. cm. 

l(i kg. 
1(500 i-em. 



17:11:15 

1732 mm. 

!K)7 mm. 

61.(175 kg. 

WW kg. cm. 

4«.» kg. 
3700 ccm. 



74 

83 
57 
28 

as 

43 



CHART XIII. 

^ Heiuiit Between the Tai.les 
OF Each Room of the Ai.co 

School Grades. 

[ n ' nr IT 



E SHORTEfiT Pupil 



nrEBs 

ITOO 
1600 
1500 

moo 

1300 






























































































































































































































1IOO 
1000 
900 

soo 

700 

































































































■•THE PRESIDENT. 



CHART XIV. 



School Grades. 







I 




TI 




m 






IT 




V 






VI 




TD 




vra 


sooo 

720O 
6400 
5600 
flSOO 
qOOO 
32.00 

z^oo 

I600 
SCO 














































1 













































































































































































































































































CHART XV. 



Sch(x>l (irades. 

in IV V "vi Tn "vnr 



lOOO 
900 
800 
700 
600 
500 
HOO 


' 




1 








' 
































1 


















1 






































































































ZOO 

too 












































































1' 

















REPORT OF THK I'RF.SIDKNT, 



CHART XVI. 



School Grafles, 

n ni IT T Ti "vn vni 



luatns 
50 
45 




























































































so 








1 
























































£0 
1» 

10 

5 



































































































































































CHART XVII, 
F.MEs IN Vital Cae'acity 

School Grades. ' 



270O 
£400 
KlOO 
ISOO 
tAOO 
ISOO 






REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 65 



COURSE OF POWER DURING THE DAY. 

The time of taking each ergographic tracing was noted on 
the ergogram. This furnished the data for determining the 
course of power throughout the school day. (See Chart XXIX. ) 
As a check experiment eight pupils, four boys and four girls, 
representing about the average of the school, and selected 
from several different departments, were tested at intervals 
of about three-quarters of an hour throughout the school day. 
The variations in the amount of work done by each of these 
pupils gives the individual course of power and the average 
work done should have a close resemblance to the course of 
power for the school. (See Chart XXVIII.) For the better 
understanding of the problem and its solution the tracings made 
by one of these pupils and the chart from them are given, 
showing her individual course of power throughout the day. 
The weight iised each time with this girl was three kilograms. 
The falling off in the amount of work done at 2:30 P. M. is 
probably due to some difficult task just preceding that test. 

The ergograms of this pupil No. 498 are given in charts 
XVIII to XXVI, and the time when each was made is recorded 
on the chart. Table XV gives the figures belonging to these 
tests, and they are graphically represented in chart XXVII. 
The close resemblance of charts XXVII, XXVIII and XXIX 
to each other is quite marked and confirmatory of their 
accuracy. During the time that these observations were being 
made the children of the Alcott School were deprived of their 
usual morning recess, because of the obstruction of the olay- 
ground by the work on the addition to the building. Quite 
probably this fact has influenced the course of the fatigue curve 
for the day, and it will be interesting to compare this curve 
with one charted from observations made at the same school 
later or at another having the recess. It seems fair to draw 
from these curves the following conclusions : 

1. The extremes of endurance and fatigue in school are 
greater in the morning than in the afternoon. 

2. A higher grade of power is found in the morning 
session in children attending two sessions daily. 

3. While endurance is not as great, it is better sustained 
in the afternoon. 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS, 



CHART XVIII. 



CHART XIX. 




REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 



CHART XXIII. 




CHART XXIV. 




68 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



CHART XXVII. 

Course of Power Throughout the School Day as Determined by the 

Ergographic Records Made by No. 498. 



TiME-TDi 'ixxxriaii n mii 


WORK IN 

KJLOORAM- 

CENTINETERS 

260 
240 
ZZO 
ZOO 
180 




















^~ 


"^ 
















^ 



















\ 






\^ 


^ 




V 


/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 

/ 






\ 



TABLE XV. 
Data— The weight, 3 kg., was lifted once in two seconds for 90 seconds. 



Time of Test 


9:00 


9:47 


10:40 


11:80 


12:18 


1:34 


2:20 


3:13 


3:55 






Work Done (kg. cm.) 


M) 


249 


243 


189 


180 


219 


198 


207 


183 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 



69 



CHART XXVIII. 

Course of Power Throughout a School Day as Determined by the 
Average Ergographic Records of Eight Pupils 

OF THE AlCOTT ScHOOL. 



WORK IN 
KILOORAM- 
CENTIMETERS 

E60 



ZW 



JL 



H 



m 



zzo 



zoo 



n 



in 



M 



160 























\ 




• 


'*^W 










\ 


\ 


i 


1 


/ 

> 


^ 


^^ 








\ 


V 








• 

















TABLE XVI. 

DATA—EiiTht pupils (4 boys and 4 girls) were each tested nine times durini: the day. 
Each test consisted of 90 seconds* work. A weight of 8 kg. was lifted every other second . 



Average Time of Test 


8:51 


9:37 


10:82 


11:20 


12:07 


1:23 


2:08 


3:00 


3:45 


Average Work Done(kg.cm) . 


262 


268 


249 


229 


212 


243 


234 


228 


224 



70 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



CHART XXIX. 

Course of Power Determined from the Ergooraphic Records of 

Eleven Hundred Twenty-seven Pupils of 
THE Alcott School. 



TDE 



jx: 



2.60 



240 



220 



20O 



JL JSL 



IL 



M 



IftO 







































^^ 


A 




,/"" 


-\ 


s_ 








\ 


V 


# 
/ 
1 
t 
f 




\ 



















table XVII. 

Data— Each test lasted 90 seconds. The weight, which was seven per cent of the 
pupil^s weight, was lifted once in two seconds. 



Averacre Time of Tests. 


9.85 


10:32 


11:28 


12-11 






Average Work Done (kg. cm ) 


24i 


237 


231 


204 




REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 



71 



AN UNGRADED ROOM. 

Near the close of the school year, at the suggestion of Su- 
perintendent Andrews, the apparatus was transferred to an- 
other school and tests were made on the pupils of a special room 
set apart for dull and troublesome pupils. The department 
contained sixteen boys and four girls. The average age of the 
boys was eleven years, five months, ten days ; that of the girls 
was ten years, four months and twenty- one days. 

A number of developmental defects was noted among 
these pupils which would suggest imperfect formation of the 
brain. Two are marked as being microcephalic, their heads 
being below normal in size. Seven of the twenty are recorded 
as having cranial asymmetry, eight as having asymmetrical 
faces. Six are noted as having peculiarly formed ears, and 
nine as having narrow, high, or imperfectly formed palates. 
Five of the pupils had decided eye defects, the visual acuity 
being f 8 or lower, while thirteen had hearing so defective in 
one or both ears as to place them at a disadvantage in school 
work. That is, 60 per cent reached a subnormal point in hear- 
ing that only 24 per cent of the Alcott School pupils of the 
same age fell to. 

Malnutrition was shown by marked anaemia in two of the 
pupils. Want of muscular tonicity was noted in seven. The 
nervous ergographic tracings made by most of these children, 
and the small amount of work done on the ergograph by them 
would indicate the same condition. 

The averages made by these pupils was lower in every par- 
ticular than the averages made by the Alcott School pupils of 
the same age as will appear from the following table. 

TABLE XVIII. 

Comparison of the averages made in the tests by the pupils 
of the ungraded room with the Alcott School averages: 



Qirls of Ungraded Room 

Alcott School normals for the same 

age 

8978 of Ungraded Room 

Averages for same age at Alcott 

School 



Net Height. 
Mm. 


Height Sitting. 
Mm. 


• 


• 

a 


1,274 

1,323 
1,362 

1,378 


G92 

704 
724 

727 


27.325 

29.033 
30.880 

31.888 


160 

180 
206 

261 



•M be 

«b£<n 

o 



> 



23.8 

24.4 
32.4 

34.6 



1.375 

1.444 
1,762 

1,763 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



CONCLUSIONS. 



While many interesting deductions might be made from 
the foregoing observations, I deem it best to present only the 
following conservative conclusions, which I believe are fully 
justified by the observations: 

1 . In general there is a distinct relationship in children 
between physical condition and intellectual capacity, the latter 
varying directly as the former. 

2. The endurance (ergographic work) of boys is greater 
than that of girls at all ages, and the difference seems to 
increase after the age of nine. 

3. There are certain anthropometric indications, which 
warrant a careful and thorough investigation into the subject of 
co-education in the upper grammar grades. 

4. Physical condition should be made a factor in the 
grading of children for school work, and especially at the 
entrance into the first grade. 

5. The great extremes in physical condition of pupils in 
the upper grammar grades, make it desirable to introduce great 
elasticity into the work of these grades. 

6. The classes in Physical Culture should be graded on a 
physical instead of an intellectual basis. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

At this point certain questions naturally arise. Can such 
work as the foregoing be systematically prosecuted by the 
Board of Education with advantage to the schools ? If so, 
what should be its scope ? 

The first question I shall answer affirmatively. The 
reason for this answer, as well as the answers to the second 
question, may be considered together. It is now very gener- 
ally admitted that one function of education is sense training. 
To this end there has been introduced into the curriculum 
nature study, music, drawing, constructive work, as the 
manual training, etc. While it is not intended to suggest that 
the whole utility of these studies lies in sense training, it is that 
factor of them, which I am now considering. The wood-work- 
ing done in manual training is not intended to fit the pupils for 
the carpenter trade, nor could it accomplish this. It does train 
the eye to measure actual and comparative distances, it does train 
the tactile sense, it does train the muscular sense and the joint 
sense. Large sums of money are spent annually to secure this 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 73 

training, and it is necessary to determine whether the work done 
trains as it is supposed to. The products of the work in a crude 
way determine this question, but it can be determined with much 
greater nicety and accuracy by properly arranged sense tests in 
the hands of an observer whose psychological information gives 
him a full knowledge of the extent, varieties and the limitations 
of the senses under examination. Such examinations applied to 
groups of pupils will furnish reliable data from which to judge 
of the efficacy of the various forms of manual training, to deter- 
mine the good and the bad elements in the work, and in general 
to fix the pedagogical value, and therefore the commercial 
value, of the whole work or of any of its parts. 

In a similar way such examinations may be used to deter- 
mine the value of all of the work done for the purposes of sense 
training, to discover the weak points, and to show the reason of 
the weakness. 

HALF-DAY SESSIONS. 

A problem which has vexed this Board for many years is 
that of half-day sessions, and its correlative problem, rented 
rooms for school children. Thus far it has been assumed to be 
desirable to provide all pupils with a full day session. Now that 
we realize that education is not a tangible substance to be poured 
into the child, doubt is thrown on this assumption. As a matter 
of fact it is not known at all whether it is better for the first 
grade pupil to attend a half day session or a whole day session. 
Nor is the relative value of the morning and afternoon sessions 
known. But both are questions of fact which can be determined 
by experiment and observation. But these questions could be 
given positive answers in two, or possibly one, year's time by a 
well-equipped corps of observers, working along child-study 
lines. Let us assume, for the sake of the argument, that it is 
found that half-day sessions are preferable for young children, 
and that afternoon sessions are as good as morning sessions. 
Such knowledge would not only prove of great value to the 
children involved but it would save the Board of Education of 
Chicago enough money in a single year to support the corps 
making the observations for half a century. 

INFLUENCE OF NATIONALITY. 

In certain of the Chicago schools the great bulk of the 
population is Italian, in others Bohemian, in others Scandi- 



74 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

navian, in others Russian, and so on. These children bring- 
into their school work the characteristic hereditary tendencies 
of the great nations from which they are descended. If the 
schools are to do the best for these children, and to do their 
share in blending these nationalties into a common American 
type, the national peculiarities of these children must be known,, 
and they can only be known by systematic, scientific study. 

BACKWARD PUPILS. 

The pupils of the ungraded rooms present a problem. Be- 
tween the normal children and those sufficiently feeble-minded 
to be sent to the State institution, there is a contingent which 
must be handled in the schools; these are the extremely dull 
pupils, the bugbear of the teachers and the greatest of all 
drawbacks to the normal children. These children are to be 
gathered into ungraded rooms. Their management calls for a 
careful investigation of each individual child, by a trained psy- 
chologist, to determine the nature and extent of his defects, for 
the guidance of the teacher, who on her part must be highly 
trained in her profession, competent to understand thoroughly 
the report of the psychologist and to adapt her work to the 
needs of the pupil. With some of these pupils the difficulty is 
entirely or largely nutritional, which is outside the scope of the 
management of the educational authorities. In others the de- 
fect lies in the nervous system. These defects may be classi- 
fied as follows: 

1. Defects in the avenues to the brain and cord — i. e.,. 
defects in the senses and their tracts. 

2. Defects in the brain itself. 

(a) Structural defects. 

(b) Nutritional defects — 

( 1 ) Anaemia. 

(2) Starvation. 

(3) Fatigue. 

(4) Toxaemia. 

3. Defects in the efferent or motor tracts. 

For the first class of these defects some provision is already 
made in the sense — training methods used in the schools of 
to-day. It is necessary, however, to extend the time devoted 
to this training, and to apply it with the highest grade of skill 
to the defective pupils. As to the structural defects of the 
brain, medicine offers no relief. The whole hope lies in educa- 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 75 



tion, and fortunately it is a hope founded on good grounds. 
As to the nutritional defects, the fatigue element comes largely 
within the scope of school work, while the others are to be re- 
legated to the physician. 

The management of the motor defects is to be found in the 
constructive work and educational games, now so largely gain- 
ing headway in the schools. 

If it is the duty of the state to educate normal children, it 
is doubly its duty to educate these less favored ones, and such 
education cannot be conducted on guess work. It. must have 
an accurate scientific background. 

TRUANTS. 

The truants present another field for child-study work. 
Their peculiarities should be as carefully studied as those of 
the children in the ungraded rooms. The parental school, soon 
to be established, should through such channels as is here con- 
templated, throw much light on the truants and the best meth- 
ods of managing them. Indeed I cannot see how a truant 
school can be well managed until the physical peculiarities of 
the truants have been thoroughly studied. 

LIMITATIONS OF THE WORK. 

In the present series of observations it will be noted that 
each pupil was examined only as to seven points. The investi- 
gation was purposely restricted to these limits, in order that the 
largest possible number of pupils might be examined. In 
systematic work with such objects as have just been outlined the 
scope of the observations would have to be considerably 
extended. Nevertheless there are many problems in child 
study, such for instance as those relating to the emotions, which 
may be left to private investigators. All observations made 
under the Board of Education should be along lines likely to 
lead quickly to results which could be applied immediately in 
pedagogical work. 

It seems to me desirable that the work thus initiated and 
done under the auspices of the Board of Education should be 
continued and made a permanent feature of the school work. 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. S. Christopher, M. D., 

Member Board of Education. 



76 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

I present herewith the report of District Superintendent 
Speer, which does not appear in the report of the Superin- 
tendent of Schools. 

REPORT OF DISTRICT SUPERINTENDENT WILLIAM W. SPEER, IN 

CHARGE OF DISTRICT NO. 2. 

Motor Activity and Education. 

The task of the teacher of to-day is by no means so simple 
as in the time of Plato. The chan^afing of conditions of even 
the last hundred years have given new ideals and called for 
corresponding changes in appliances and methods. 

Unless we believe that the acme of human wisdom has 
already been reached, there is no reason why the schools should 
rest in tradition and precedent. But the need of adaptation to 
a changing environment does not rob us of a permanent basis 
for endeavor. I find that this basis in the thought which the 
records of the past, the discoveries of science, and the promises 
of faith alike suggest — the thought of the ascension of the 
powers. The school is concerned with the whole personality, 
the whole life. To promote organic progress, to find the 
means of organic nutrition should be our serious study and 
persistent endeavor. 

The work of centuries crystallizing in the mind of Herbert 
Spencer was expressed more than forty years ago in the memor- 
able words: **The law of organic progress is the law of all 
progress." Organic progress requires that each part fulfill its 
function; it is development from within; it is growth. Organic 
progress forbids * * handing over the body to doctors of medicine 
and the spirit to doctors of philosophy, who seem to have 
agreed in but one thing — that the partition shall be eternal, 
and that neither shall ever intrude into the domain of the 
other." 

Accepting the unity of the being as the keynote of our 
work does fiot forbid studying, now this phase, now that; no 
activity can be imderstood in isolation, nor can all be fitly 
trained without due attention to special functions. 

Nature has given to the eye, the ear, the hand, the brain, 
each its own work and sphere, and each should be allowed 
legitimate channels of action. 

We cannot endow the child with new powers, and in the 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 77 



degree that the school fails to call into action those he has it 
fails to educate. It is not from the standpoint of the physical 
that I shall chiefly urge motor activity in the elementary school, 
but from the view that when we sin against the body we sin 
against the mental and moral life. In turn, neglect of the 
mental and moral weakens the man physically. It is true that 
men with diseased bodies may accomplish much intellectually; 
it is also true that wonderful physical feats are performed by 
those undeveloped mentally; but it does not follow that free 
play of all the functions does not conduce to strength of the 
being as a whole. 

If an excessive supply of blood in the brain may produce 
congestion or delirium, and lack of blood or impure blood 
cause unconsciousness, then the motor activity which favors 
free circulation, which removes waste products, cannot be a 
matter of indifference in promoting the evolution of thought. 
It is not motor activity alone that concerns the teacher, but 
motor activity in relation to education. The schools contem- 
plate more than the strength of the athlete or the suppleness 
of the ballet dancer. As science is ready with statistics to 
show that refining and strengthening the muscular system tend 
to improve the character, so it is ready to show that dullness, 
fear, grief, entail actual wear of nerve elements; that pro- 
longed depression enfeebles the character, while hope and joy 
enlivens, give courage, inclination and power to do. Thus the 
emotional life is of deep significance. Dr. Maudsley, who will 
hardly be considered a sentimentalist, remarks: **To me it 
seems not unreasonable to suppose that the mind may stamp 
its tone, if not its very features, on the individual elements of 
the body, inspiring them with hope and energy, or infecting 
them with despair and feebleness." 

This suggests that motor training should be of a '*gladden- 
ing and energizing character," and points to play as an import- 
ant, though by no means exclusive, agent. There are many 
aspects of play which the limits of this paper forbid touching. 
For example, games indicated by the imitative and active ten- 
dencies, such as keeping house, playing store, postoffice, etc., 
at once suggest inlets for impressions domestic and commercial. 
Then there is the school senate, the debating club, the reception, 
involving tmconscious lessons in courtesy, law and order. But 
the great value of games and plays appears to me to lie in their 
indirect educational influence, in the mental and moral condition 
they induce, and it is from this standpoint that I shall speak. 



78 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



It is tnie that activity along established lines loses its influ- 
ence in developing dormant cells, and when pushed to the 
exclusion of varied action, tends to interfere with the growth of 
power. This is true of every form of action. But how can 
varied action be induced if the child is not in a condition to 
attend, to adapt itself to new circumstances? Rest and recrea- 
tion through play are means of preserving a condition in which 
mind and body can work at their full capacity. Games should 
not tax nerves already fatigued by excessive demands for atten- 
tion and skill. Let there be times for free discharge as for free 
receptivity. Abrupt transitions are unnatural. The child, 
hitherto free to run, jump, shout at will, is not ready to abandon 
these delights upon entering the school. Body and mind 
demand such means for attaining physical development, self- 
control, freedom. Such games as the tug-of-war may not do 
much for observation; they do not excite a high order of action, 
but in the earlier school days they are useful in freeing the 
child from the restraints of timidity and self-consciousness, and 
become a means of promoting social action. The child knows 
it can pull, it likes to try its strength, and embraces the oppor- 
tunity in the school as it does out of it. Besides this, the action 
produces a glow, a diffusion of energy, and furnishes a new sup- 
ply of blood to the central nervous system. Differences in 
physical as well as mental strength should be considered in all 
forms of motor activity, and it is not to be supposed that a vig- 
orous romp is to be immediately followed by mental action. 
Healthful action is, of course, conditioned by rest, and any 
action carried to the fatigue point is mischievous. Games with 
bean bags, puss in the corner, or anything which gives free 
joyous movement are adapted in varying degrees and amounts 
to the elementary school. The child should unconsciously 
acquire a love for law and order. Play is a means to this end. 
Opening right channels for energy induces a condition which 
tends to do away with ill-balanced conduct. Free the nerve ele- 
ment from irritation by the movement and recreation which the 
growth demands and reflection, will and right conduct become 
possible. The moral influence of the game lies in the self- 
activity it calls forth, both in doing and refraining from doing. 
The necessity of adapting himself to the requirements of the 
game is quickly seen by the learner. He attends, he directs 
himself, he acts, he co-operates with his fellows. It may be 
urged that there is so much for children to learn that there is no 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 79 

time for play. Even if one takes this view of the purpose of 
the school play is no less necessary. 

The limits of this paper forbid dwelling upon the manner 
in which bodily action enters into the formation of ideas and 
habits. But it is well known that the motor and sensory fimc- 
tions are essential elements in the mental life. Economy in 
education requires that we utilize these elements ; that we keep 
the child in a condition favorable for mental and moral action. 
Attainment is impossible without attention, and attention is im- 
possible when the brain is benumbed by impure blood. Nour- 
ishment must be converted by nature into blood and tissue and 
productive force. 

W. W. Speer. 

I submit herewith the report of E. Benj. Andrews, Super- 
intendent of Schools, verbatim as it was handed to me, with the 
exception of the report of Dr. Colin A. Scott, which was with- 
drawn at his request, and the report of Dr. Christopher on the 
subject of child study. This report was transmitted to me by 
Dr. Christopher, and was presented by me as a part of my re- 
port. Subsequently it was taken out without my authority or 
consent, and presented as a part of the Superintendent's report. 
I have restored it to the place where it belongs. 
I present also the reports of the committees. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Graham H. Harris, 

President, 



REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FINANCE. 



T'o the Board of Education of the City of Chicago : 

Your Committee on Finance respectfully presents their re- 
port in detail of the expenditures on account of the Board of 
iiducation for the school year ending June 30, 1899, as follows : 

SCHOOL TAX FUND. 
»AI.ABIB8— 

Superintendents and teachers \ $4,866,661 80 

Less amount charged to School Fund $ * 759,963 44 

Less for salaries of teachers of Soecial Studies. 891,279 05 

1,642,842 49 

$3,224,419 81 

Office employes 70,700 58 

En^neers and janitors 399,309 69 

School Sites— 

Northeast comer 101st street and Union avenue $ 2,880 80 

Calumet avenue, between 41st and 42d streets 29,732 00 

Northeast corner Mohawk and Menominee streets 33,500 00 

Prairie avenue, north of 39th street 45,986 63 

Northeast comer Edmunds avenue and Goodman street. . . . 3,000 00 

Southeast corner North 42d court and West CuUum street. . 5,000 00 

Northeast comer Ingelside avenue and 54th street (four 

quarterly payments) 1,750 00 

Addition to Dore School lot 20,000 00 

Addition to Lake View High School lot 3,700 00 

Addition to Forrestville School lot 7,000 00 

Addition to Avondale School lot 2,000 00 

Addition to Lawndale School lot 4,780 36 

$ 158,829 69 

Nbw Buildings— 

On account of contracts for erection of 915,944 52 

Incidental Expenses in Connection with Ebection of New 

Buildings— 

Fences and sidewalks $ 8.985 41 

Watchmen's services. 10,519 00 

Cleaning buildings and removing rubbish 340 60 

Heating during process of erection 14,477 35 

Gas and electric fixtures Lake View High School 894 75 

Curtain hoist appaiatus Lake View High School 200 00 

Filling John Spry School lot 1,250 00 

$ 36,667 11 



84 REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES. 



Furnishing Nbw Buildinos— 

Seats and desks $ 18,576 73 

Bookcases 2,188 00 

Chairs 936 19 

Window shades 1,390 53 



$ 22,986 45 



ARCHITBOT DnPABTMBNT— 

Salaries of Arohiteot and assistants $ 44,972 63 

Draughting supplies 1,976 54 

Car fare 757 49 

Reference books 133 65 

Of&ce furniture 211 75 

PBBMANBNT IXFROYEIIBNTS— 

Wire Window Ouards and Hand Rails for the fol- 
lowing named School BuUdinga: 

Auburn Park % 153 75 

Bancroft 81 60 

Brentano 12 50 

Fallon 28 60 

Garfield 124 0(i 

Goethe 1 75 

Graham 35 GO 

Hartigan 42 00 

J. N. Thorp 16 50 

J. W. Scott 38 60 

Jefferson 6 50 

Khig 6 50 

Lincoln 4 75 

Longwood 33 00 

Manierre 5 85 

Mark Sheridan 31 45 

Moseley 6 50 

Normal 9 60 

Oak Street. 3 10 

Rayenswood 61 85 

W. P. Nixon 35 00 



9 48,052 06 



% 732 10 



Earth Filling and Cindering on the folloioing 
named School Lots: 

LakeHIgh % 22 90 

Agassiz 16 00 

Auburn Park 30 26 

Bismarck 21 20 

Brentano 16 47 

Burnside 1,060 00 

Burr 77 00 

Carter 12 00 

Chas. W. Earle 36 40 

Crawford 24 22 

Eighty-third Street 31 60 

Fulton 33 60 

Geo. Schneider 41 95 



COMMITTEE < 













































































OamlructUm qf Waur Oottlt in Conneetlon vri 
Ola BuUdi-ai: 


th 


































































Lake VlewHleh , IM 35 

NorlhwBBt Division HiKh »» 30 














Hamilton 


MSB 














Newbern 


IBM 



f 134 30 




140 25 




182 79 




135 21 
9 


3,274 16 


, $ 513 60 




615 40 




158 00 




883 35 




803 06 




• 244 12 




619 40 




490 25 




518 50 




861 25 
S 


1 

5,6S6 93 



86 REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES. 



Ray 

Soammon 

Tennyson 

Wicker Park. 



Fitting uv Boorm for Household Arts in thefoUow 
ing named Sehool Buildings: 

Brown S 

Clarke 

Charles Kozminski 

Goethe 

Hawthorne 

J.N. Thorp K 

J. R. I>oolittle. 

Lewis 

Xiyman Trumball 

McAUister 



Fitting up supply rooms, workshop and stable. $ 3,606 35 

Fitting up Booms for Kindergartens in the foi- 
towing named School Buildings: 

Adams $ 486 72 

Arnold 202 60 

Calhoun 6 75 

Chase 782 00 

Cooper 870 00 

Cornell 608 00 

D. R. Cameron 545 70 

H.H. Nash 575 00 

Jefferson 468 85 

J. R. Doollttle, Jr 649 50 

Keith 266 69 

Lincoln 195 75 

Lowell 295 88 

Moos 15 00 

Perkins Bass 109 81 

Pulaski , 164 87 

Thos. Chalmers 1,643 00 

Walsh 102 53 



$ 7,938 55 



Fitting up Rooms for Manual Training in the 
folUnoing named School Buildings: 

Agassiz $ 78 73 

Anderson — 91 87 

Brentano 1,875 70 

Brighton 52 31 

D. R. Cameron 88 00 

Frances E. Willard 507 00 

Froebel 899 59 

Keith 204 00 

Louis Nettelhorst 192 66 

Madison Avenue 27 75 



COMMITTEE ON I 



Phil Sberldan % 13« sa 

Ravenswood , n jt 

Thomaa Hotds ],a9a M 

Viator F. LawBOQ 30 OS 

Ward loe M 

S 

Filler e(jUli>niKnt aad nulnteoauce t 

DliUlllDK apparatDH 

FVHng up Qffcei Jdr Iht fMoaing namtd SehtxH 



i| filing for the foUoaing naitua Se/ii)ol 



JelTenanHlfb S It5 88 

Annour Street U SO 

Arnold as 80 

Cblhoon IT] Ss 

Farragnl 83 ]a 

Garteld 83 77 

HolmeB ST 3S 

Keith IMSO 

Koscliuko 86 35 

ORden ISOO 

Parkman M 40 

Phil Sheridan 18 85 

plokaid IB 00 

Polk Street «{ nj 

Pnliukl 80 00 

BaTeuBwood SI 00 

Sherman TV 40 

Tenoy»on 38 DO 

Victor P. Lawion 28 80 

WaahlDfctoD w la 

W. C. Qoady B5 <T 

Eltcttie Oonti at tht foOouiiiia natmit Sc!uxl 



Ellen Hltohell... 
Parragnt 

Holden 

LoDKrellow 

Hanlerre 

Bloieler 

HorrlB 



88 



REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES. 



Normal S 

Scanlan 

SohiUer 

Washington 

Electric Wiring at the foUmving named School 
Buildings: 

West Division High $ 

Alcott.. 

Arnold 

Bancroft 

Brownell 

Ogden 

Ravenswood 

Yale __ 

Gas Service Pipe and Fixtures in the following 
named School Buildings: 

Bnfflewood High $ 

Lake View High 

Northwest Division High 

Arnold 

Bancroft 

Beale 

Bismarck 

Blaine 

Bryant 

Charles Kozminski 

Colambus 

Everett 

Farren 

Frances E. Willard 

Frank J. Jirka 

Goethe 

Haven 

Jackson 

Lafayette 

Moos, Beriihard 

O'Toole 

Phil Sheridan 

Kyerson 

Ward 

Cement Sidewalks at the following named School 
Buildings: 

North Division High 

Agassiz 

Bismarck 

Brownell 

California Avenue 

Central Park 

Emerson 



16 00 
45 00 
35 00 
30 00 



lOd 00 

16 00 
14 75 
27 00 

6 25 
105 00 

17 50 
22 00 



$ 


270 59 


503 00 




10 20 




96 27 




34 26 




94 06 




135 00 




166 35 




116 70 




:)6 00 




90 22 




80 12 




129 00 




114 95 




207 25 




305 00 




51 70 




19 00 




72 46 




12 40 




179 50 




434 00 




14 00 




89 00 




582 57 




686 16 




&i'2 34 




148 S6 




88 00 




286 93 




94 50 



457 00 



311 50 



3,260 94 



COMMITTEE ON FINANCE. 



89 



Garfield S 

C^eo. Schneider. . . .'. 

Greenwood Avenae 

Hancock 

Headley 

Horace Greeley 

Jackson 

Keith 

Kinzie 

Knickerbocker 

Lincoln 

Lonfcfellow and Komensky 

Louis Nettelhorst 

Lyman TrambuU 

Ogden 

Raymond 

Rogers 

Rogers Park 

Sheldon 

Skinner 

Throop 

Von Hamboldt 

Ward 

Wicker Park 

Cement Ftoora in tJie follmving named School 
BuUdings: 

Bnglewood High $ 

Adams 

Agassiz ; 

Armour Street 

Beale 

Bismarck 

Edgewater 

Ellpn Mitchell 

Huron Street 

Irving Park 

Kershaw 

Von Humboldt 

Wells 

Construction of boiler house at the En&rlewood 
High School Building 

Fitting vp Laboratories in the following High 
Schools: 

Lake View % 

Marshall 

Medill 

Ftag Poles at the foUoiving named Scfiool Buildings : 

Jefferson High $ 

West Division High 

Burnside 



562 29 
304 95 
402 55 
190 33 
419 43 
245 34 
605 90 
597 74 
597 82 
247 93 
579 10 
772 37 
443 79 
1,103 86 
804 80 

17 76 
309 70 
154 27 
387 31 
149 44 
596 93 
381 00 

17 62 
505 56 



$ 12,817 35 



244 00 
204 52 
121 87 
191 31 
.519 35 
634 98 
108 54 

51 23 
314 40 

18 79 
595 17 
286 18 

18 05 



s 



180 00 
1,502 50 
5,.389 71 



% 



3,.308 39 
11,317 20 



7,072 21 



77 50 

95 00 

144 00 



90 



REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES. 



Carter f 95 00 

Dore 95 00 

Grayland 44 00 

Hayen 95 00 

Huron Street 77 50 

IrvlDg «5 00 

J. W. Scott 95 00 

Kosciusko. 77 50 

Langland 77 50 

L3rman Trumbull 95 00 

Madison Avenue 25 00 

Manierre 95 00 

Oak Street' 77 50 

Parkslde 35 00 

Sherwood % 95 00 

W.C. Goudy 95 00 

Equipping Rooms with Lu^tr Prism at the follow- 
loioing named School Buildings: 

Aflrassiz % 6386 

Alcott 89 00 

Moseley 121 58 

Newberry 690 74 

Washingrton 182 28 

Alterations and Improvements at the foilowlng 
named School Buildings : 

Lake Hij^ta, remodeling buildings f 2,707 05 

Lake Ylew High, sign plates 38 75 

Northwest Division High, iron gates 244 00 

Beale, raising boiler house roof 380 00 

Farren, raising old building 6,116 48 

Franklin, wrought iron grills 24 50 

Garfield, principars office 170 05 

Hancock, fire escape. 875 00 

Hendricks, changing entrances 597 72 

La Fayette, changing entrances 360 00 

McCIellan, alterations 285 00 

McPherson, foundations under old buildings. . 125 00 

Moseley, new office, library, el c 2,099 80 

Motley, enlarging boys^ closet room 275 00 

Parkman, stairways 638 00 

Kavenswood, motor and shafting 189 00 

Rogers Park, raising old building 1,821 00 

Sheldon, electric wiring 95 00 

Washington, alterations 400 00 

Yale, galvanized iron ceiling 260 00 

Machinery for workshop 488 01 

Plats, school sites 369 12 

Hitching posts 237 00 

Surveying 199 00 



1,575 50 



1,147 41 



% 18,900 08 



$ 180,662 79 



COMMITTEE ON FINANCE. 



91 



Obnkbal Repairs— 

Masonry and brick work $ 1,817 98 

Lathing and plastering 5,343 45 

Mixed paints, oil, white lead, etc 10,661 87 

Calciminlng 21,719 00 

Repairing and painting? roofs 11,661 75 

Repairs to iron, tin and sheet metal work 16,354 76 

Plumbing, sewerage and gas fitting 15,581 05 

Cleaning water closet vaults 545 50 

Window glass and putty 8,645 62 

Blackboards 10,269 32 

Cleaning buildings 260 85 

Hardware and nails 9,565 94 

Lumber for sidewalks, fences, etc 32,718 61 

Repairing cement floors 8,969 79 

Carpenters and laborers wages 104,951 64 

Keep and care of horses 2,531 63 

Stable expenses 4,408 14 

Shoeing horses 816 46 

Whitewashing 4,168 50 

Repairs to wagons, buggies and harness 1,248 42 

Painting, graining and oiling the interior woodwork of old 

buildings 48,626 60 

Painting exterior, wood, brick stone and metal work. 

fences, etc 39,556 65 

Relaying floors in old buildings 2,590 70 

Removing ashes and rubbish 3,876 84 

Fitting up branches 13,807 63 

Delivering lumber, hardware, etc., from supply room to 

school buildings 2,457 88 

Horses, buggies and harness 3,028 15 

Restoring rented buildings 568 45 

Repairing Venetian blinds 5,629 04 

Repairing flag poles 537 11 

Repairing electric bells 567 15 

Repairing scales 1,215 07 

Moving buildings 1,383 00 

Rent of telephone 470 28 

Insurance 1,042 51 

Fitting up offices (Schiller Building) 73 20 



Heating Apparatus— 

Substitution of Steam Heating Apparatus in pla>ce 
of Furnaces in the following named School 
Buildings : 

Kershaw $ 3,345 00 

Phil Sheridan 3,850 00 

Ventilating Apparatus in the following named 
School Buildings: 

Kershaw % 3,^00 00 

Phil Sheridan 2,875 00 



S 392,673 39 



$ 7,195 00 



S 6,075 00 



REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES. 



MlBI 



AddiOnnt to BUam Etolino Apparaiut In tie fot- 
Uneing aamtd BcIukI BuUdluoi! 

North WBit DlTlsIon High J 780 09 

Koieley 49ft DO 

I 

Beat EeipUatiOK In tht /oUoaliig namtil School 
Bulldi»s>.- 

AdBmS t 55 00 

Audenen 00 00 

Blaine ISO 00 

Brantano. S» 00 

Chaae SO 00 

l}aTidSiilniE 130 00 

D. B-Oftineroii eo 00 

J. B. DoolltUe, Jr OG 00 

H. H. Nub 60 00 

Hedj. 100 00 

nolniM 100 00 

Kenhaw T48 oo 

Unne oo oo 

Lonii NetMlboTst. SO 00 

HoCtxh 100 00 

Pbt) Sberldan 4BT 30 

l>iilaakl rooo 

BSTCDBWOOd 60 00 

Tannywjn ISO oo 

Vlotor F. Lawson 60 00 

Waul 80 00 

Washington 50 00 

Yates 01 50 

1 

OoMTino SUam Ptpa In tlit foUotctng nanud 
BehiO(A BullaiKae: 

Laka View Hlih t Tl 82 

NorthwflBt Division EUh 455 21 

Normal JTl Tl 

Aloolt 168 14 

Arnold ai0 5» 

Fallon M7B5 

Parren 100 70 

OalllBtet 105 BH 

Kershaw Ill aa 

La Psj'ette IBS IM 

Motley !S8 8S 

O'Toole 187 S4 

Phil. ShBridan.. 186 01 

WUllard 178 M 

1 

to Bteam heatlns apparatus % 

Ordinary repairs to turnaoes and stovea 



COMMITTEE ON FINANCE. 



93 



Cat lace gaskets and packinic $ 582 96 

Engine and cylinder oil 64160 

Inspecting boilers 702 00 

Smokeless furnaces 3,800 00 

Repairing steam pipe covering 477 66 

Apparatus and Puhniturk— 

Renewal of old seats and desks $ 8,782 85 

Principal desks 1,725 24 

Teachers* tables 4,048 81 

Chairs 3,989 98 

Clocks 1,469 00 

Repairing and cleaning clocks 658 60 

Bookcases and wardrobes 8,966 80 

Kindergarten tables and chairs 834 54 

Rubber tips 99 71 

Chart easels 64 55 

Window shades .... 8,248 10 

Ink wells and glasses 1,013 05 

Picture frames 15 00 

Pianos 1,507 50 

Moving, tuning and repairing pianos 691 66 

Repairing old furniture 22,922 03 

German teachers* tables 300 00 

Key boards 265 65 

Number tables 3,110 70 

Typewriters 276 66 

Drawing tables 316 00 

Drawing easels - 499 00 

Letter boxes 87 00 

Office furniture 365 36 

Labor re-seating class rooms 2,839 86 

Model cases 2,833 60 

Gymnasium apparatus 5,763 40 

Rental op Pbopertt Occupied for School Purposes— 

School Fund lots % 11,940 00 

Rooms and buildings 69,966 59 

Offices of Board of Education 11,383 30 

Fuel— 
Grammar and Primary ScJuhAs: 

Softcoal $ 127,825 57 

Hard coal 25,176 32 

Pine slabs 2,206 85 

Carrying in coal 25 05 

Inspecting scales , 154 00 

School Supplies— 

Chalk crayons % 975 00 

Slate pencils 219 75 

Lead pencils 5,427 23 

Pens 5,760 28 



$ 54,909 21 



$ 76,541 18 



$ 93,229 89 



$ 155,887 79 



94 REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES. 



Pen holders $ 258 23 

Writing mper 14,595 07 

Cap paper 6,008 99 

Note paper 218 50 

Ink 611 61 

Blank books and stationery 508 98 

City directories 62 50 

Blackboard rubbers 767 79 

Bent of telephone 766 90 

Wrapping paper and twine 256 60 

Insurance 790 75 

Postage and postal cards 2,422 84 

Telegram charges 168 80 

Express charges and car fare 866 97 

Bibbons for diplomas 61 80 

Spelling teblets 8,547 69 

Arithmetic tablets 6,558 90 

Bn velopes 244 60 



$ 49,563 3! 



School Houss Supplies-- 

Floor brushes $ 8,687 80 

Ck>m brooms 206 20 

Dust brushes , 725 75 

Stove brushes 5 00 

Feather dusters 265 20 

Wool dusters 202 75 

Scrub brushes 282 80 

Dust pans 79 80 

Water pails 275 70 

Soap and soap powder 1,876 86 

Sponges 264 91 

Mops and mop handles 306 83 

Coal hods 70 80 

Ash shoveUf 10 26 

Coal scoops 136 32 

Snow shovels 44 40 

Wheelbarrows 76 00 

Bubber hose 776 00 

Boiler scrapers 22 20 

Ash hose 24 00 

Eeroseneoil 252 64 

Iron enamel 800 85 

Oilcans 107 04 

Zinc oilers 3 10 

Lanterns, wicks and globes 78 82 

Hand rakes 12 80 

Axes and axe handles 31 17 

Buck saws 8 00 

Hammers 40 20 

Wrenches 21 54 

Putty knives 7 25 

Thermometers 77 70 

Ink vents 90 00 



COMMITTEE ON FINANCE. 



95 



Tin caps and chains $ 284 97 

Picks and handles 3 00 

Window platforms 90 00 

Window poles 33 00 

Call bells and gongs 8G 46 

Stoves and metal polish 57 90 

Door mats 1,147 50 

Key rings 37 00 

Gas and connecting meters 2,528 97 

Electric light 1,708 80 

Rat and mouse traps 9 00 

Disinfectant 36 00 

Ice and mineral water for offices 176 50 

Salt and lime 80 15 

Electric lamps 59 73 

Scythe stones : 6 70 

Grass seed 106 25 

Police badges 21 57 

Matchesand sundries 33 16 

Waste paper baskets 161 36 

Lawn mowers 78 90 

Flags 705 68 

Step ladders 234 50 

Mortar hoes 35 50 

Wrapping paper 78 25 

Fire extinguishers 337 50 

Corks 22 62 

Towels, etc , 102 93 

Water, Rogers Park and J. L. Marsh Schools 299 74 

Toilet paper 91 32 

Stone jugs 17 28 

Supplies for bath rooms 37 75 

Oil can boxes 64 00 

Ash cans v 48 50 

Printing and Adysbtising — 

Pablication of annual report $ 

Publishing proceedings of Board 

Miscellaneous printing 

Advertising • 

Engrossing diplomas '. 

Evening Schools— 

Teachers' salaries .$ 

Engineers* and janitors* salaries 

Gas and electric light 

Fuel •. 

Printing 

Posting notices 

Repairing typewriters 

School Libbarixs— 

Additions to school libraries $ 2,029 71 

Supplementary readers 17,649 03 



s 


561 46 




2,623 52 




7,052 67 




1,682 68 




402 15 


.$ 


74.017 00 




. 7,584 40 




5,735 60 




1,809 82 




230 82 




135 00 




25 14 



$ 18,643 17 



$ 12,322 48 



$ 89,537 78 



g6 REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES. 



Maps, charts and reference books $ 18,555 04 

Rebinding library and reference books ... 1,051 03 

Ratio blocks, weights, measures, etc 2,209 66 

Rent (principalis meetings) 107 00 

Lunch, at examination for teachers* certificates 95 00 

Hydrogen gas, Perkins Bass School 13 50 

Exhibit (Paris Exhibition) 29 84 

S 36,781 

Text Books— 

For use of indigent pupils i/ 44,90^ 



Akwexation— 

Matured bonds $ 34,000 00 

Interest coupons 29,873 00 

School orders 12 58 

CoMPULsoBT Education— 

Salaries of Superintendent and Clerk S 3,600 00 

Salaries of attendance agents 11,726 62 

Printing 30 35 

High Schools— 

Salaries of Superintendent and teachers $ 441,188 47 

Salaries of engineers and janitors 26,214 66 

Stenographer and typewriter 720 00 

Fuel 10,328 77 

Gas 654 40 

Reference books, maps, charts, etc 3 867 64 

Printing 257 81 

Laboratory supplies 1,100 31 

Philosophical apparatus 6,251 50 

Supplies, Drawing Department 722 93 

Rebinding books 228 00 

Diplomas 408 00 

Ink 16 92 

Gymnasium apparatus 9 50 

English High and Manual Training- 

Salaries of teachers $ 30,464 50 

Salaries of engineer and janitor 2,520 00 

Rent 2,700 00 

Fuel 374 57 

Tools and machinery 1,618 42 

Shop supplies 2,594 42 

Reference books, maps, charts, etc 388 66 

Drawing supplies 562 50 

Gas 49 40 

Electric light 791 68 

Electric power 1,200 63 

Laboratory supplies 108 80 

Philosophical apparatus 647 50 

Typewriters 280 00 

Printing 15 08 



y 



$ 63,88f 



f 15,35« 



$ 491,968 



$ 44.316 



COMMITTEE ON FINANCE. 



,L TBIINIKS IN GBiaaiR SCUOOLS- 

irles or teftchBra $ 31,3S3 ») 

]la Bnd maohliiery IO,«)T B2 

jp Bupplle* 18,«9 77 

■I [.-if power IS 00 



USUAI. TailBINO iT TUB HoDM OF CoHHICTCOB— 

BaLarfes of teaobera -■.- t 10,537 00 

SalariesofenBlnser and janitor S.!W 00 

ToolSBnd machinery... 674 W 

Shoti Buppllea 407 Tl! 

Pael - 1.178 97 

Tew boohs, map", eto ISO 40 \, 

Drawl nu snppllw BB PS y^ 

GrmnaBlnm Bpparalns Itl 68 



is,aB IS 



Salaries of teaoben S 74,738 75 

Supplies 4,SM ee 

Pianos J.tHOno 

RepalriQK pianos 8 00 

NoBiitL ScaooL— 

Salaries of teaobers. Normal S «,S«1 87 

Salarlei of Ceacbera, Normal FmoMce 14,841 SS 

Salaries of eaKloeer and Janitor. 8,862 !iO 

Pnel B38flS 

Oas lassa 

Rant <slx mouths) — l.soi 96 

Tut books. rerenini.'e books, etc 1,907 77 

Printing department 1,81B 84 

Oaroofacbool grounda 078 17 

Sohool sappUes, 378 89 

Manual train Inn supplies »« 30 

Laboratory sup plies B70 28 

Printlne 30 05 

Diplomas IM 3S 

Sprinkling 80 00 

Grmuaslum apparatus 801 TB 

Desks, tables, cases, etc 1.04a 75 

Salaries of teachers 1 S0,»54 50 

Stenographer and typewriter,. .' . 591 44 

Uoilc readers 4,449 as 

Pianos [six months) (i.44T 50 

Repairing, tuulns and murlDic pianos (six months) G35 00 

Salaries of teachers $ 19,077 50 

StenoKrapher and typewriter 501 :45 

Models 1.198 BO 

Drawing paper 7.801 00 



lOO REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES. 



State, county and city taxes, LaKe View High School lot. ... $ 14 85 

State, county and city taxes, Calamet Avenue, between 

Forty-first and Forty-second streets. School lot 148 37 

State, county and city taxes, Prairie Avenue, new South 

Division High Schoollot 724 »1 

State, county and city taxes, Edmunds Avenue and Good- 
man Street School lot 10 47 

State, county and city taxes. Forty-second Court and West 

Cullom Street School lot 28 33 

State, county and city taxes, George Dewey School lot 98 56 

$ 8,962 12 

Total expenditure on account of School Tax Fund S7,165,144 00 



SCHOOL FUND. 

Your Committee has audited the receipts and expenditures 
on account of School Fund for the year ending June 30, 1899, 
which are as follows: 

INVESTMENT ACCOUNT. 

Beceipts, 

Cash on hand for investment June 80, 1898 None. 

One per cent, of one year*s interest on $4,000 City of Chicago 7 

per cent, bonds in liquidation of premium paid thereon $ 40 00 

O. B. Knight*s promissory note paid 100 00 

Joseph McConneirs mortgage note paid 100 00 

Edward Neeley*s mortgage note paid 500 00 

Alice Smithes mortgage note paid 1,300 00 

Carl P. Lindquist*8 mortgage note paid 8,500 00 

City of Chicago 7 per cent, municipal bonds, Nos. 244 P, 77 Q, 78 

Q and 330 P, face value $1,000 each, paid 4,000 00 

Damages awarded tor a strip of land 33 feet wide, 404.89 feet in 
length, taken off the east side of the W. ^ of the N. W. H, 
Section 33, Township 40 N., R. 18, E. of 3d P. M., for the 
opening of 54th avenue, from Grand auenue to Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. PaulR. R. Co.'s right of way 436 00 



$ 14,966 00 



SXPENDITUBES. 



Refunded W. A. S. Graham, School Agent, amount 
advanced in investment in mortgage note of 
M.S. Nichols $ 16 25 

Invested in mortgage note ot Brita Helena Billings 500 00 



$ 516 65 



Cash in hands of School Agent June 30, 1899 14,449 35 

: $ 14,966 00 



INCOME ACCOUNT. 

Receipts. 

Cash on hand June 30, 1898 $ 187,375 48 

Rentalt— 

Of School Fund property 467,231 83 



COMMITTEE ON FINANCE. loi 



Interest— 

Chioago City bonds $ 9,447 49 

Mortflrage loans 36,314 17 

Deferred payment of rentals 430 39 

$ 46,192 05 

State ScJiool Tax— 

On account for 1898 231,169 98 

MisceVaneoua-- 

Tuition fees non-resident pupils 3,699 10 

Corrections in teachers* pay-rolls 555 18 

Refund of fceneral taxes on "Foot'* property.. 9 33 

Damages for strip of land talcen off the east 

side of the N. Vt of N. W. Ji, Sec. 83, 40, 13, 

for opening of Fifty-fourth ayenue 426 00 

Fi'om 0. T. Briffht, County Superintendent of Schools— 

State tax, 1897, account tuition of deaf mutes. . S 16,000 00 

State tax, 1898, account tuition of deaf mutes. . 18,021 <9 

S 34,021 79 

School Tax Fund- 
Amount transferred to pay teachers 4,115,698 36 

$ 5,086,379 10 

SXPBNDITURES. 

Salaries— 

Superintendent and teachers $ 4,866,661 80 

Expense in Connectton with Se-appraisetnent of 
School Fund Property— 

Appraiser's fees $ 1,500 00 

Attorney's fees 250 00 

Expense C. F. Collot's trip to Gaspe, Canada, to 
communicate with Owen F.Aldis, appraiser, 

and telegrams to same 347 25 

A. P. McKay, real estate expert 100 00 

Brief answer to National Safe Deposit Com- 
pany 22 50 

S 2,219 75 

Special Assessments and Taxes— 

General taxes, 1896, McAuley & Lake property. $ 62 28 

General taxes, 1897, McAuley & Lake property. 57 34 

General taxes, 1897, Qeorge B. Weise property . . 9 12 

Special water supply pipe, Millen property 5 90 

Special water supply pipe, Bartlett property. . . 12 45 

Special opening North Fifty-fourth avenue. ... 685 39 

Special main sewer in South Forty-fifth avenue 13,266 49 

$ 14,098 97 

Miscellaneous— 

Rent of box in National Safe Deposit Com- 
pany's vault $ 3000 

Marg tret O'Donoghue, dower in Barker lot. . . . 75 00 

Revenue stamps for checks to teachers 487 20 

Master's fees and costs in foreclosure proceed- 
ings, Henry Altman mortgage loan 529 10 

Allowed for alleged injury to Douglas Duncan, 

minor, by vaccination - 108 30 



I02 



REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES. 



200 00 



426 00 


67 00 


229 


45 15 


201,428 54 
$ 5,086,379 10 



Royal Trust Company, care and custody of se- 
curities f 

Transferred to School Fund Principal proceeds 
as damafces for a strip of land 83 feet wide 
and 404.89 feet in length, taken off of the 
east side of the W. Vi of N. W. }4, of Section 
33, Township 40 North, Range 13 East 

Court costs 

Accrued interest on mortgage note 

Plats of School Fund lots and lands 

Cash on hand in City Treasury June 30, 189P. . . . 



INVESTMENT OF PRINCIPAL. 

Your Committee also reports that in accordance with their 
duties, as prescribed in Section 1 1 of the Rules and Regulations 
of the Board, they have examined the securities in the hands of 
the School Agent and, also, those in the custody of the Royal 
Trust Company, representing part of the investments of the 
School Fund, and found them to agree with record of the Fund 
kept in the office of the Board : 

Amount of School Fund principal, June 30. 1899. . . $ 980,215 19 

Bonds'— 

2 City of Chicago 7 per cent bonds $ 2,000 00 

34 City of Chicago 4^ per cent bonds 11,950 00 

335 City of Chicago 4 per cent bonds 175.500 00 / 

15 City of Chicago 3.65 per cent bonds 1,500,00 

24 City of Chicago 3^ per cent bonds 23,000 00 

16 Hyde Park 4H P^i* cent school bonds 16,000 00 

Total bonds $ 229,950 00 

Promissory note, M. H. Reynolds, et al 100 00 

Mortgage Notes— 

Charles C. Housel, due December 18, 1901 $ 5,000 00 

Brita Helena Billings, due March 15, 1904 9,500 00 

Orren V. Stookey, d ue June 21 , 1930 3,500 00 

Minnie W. Bowen. due October 1, 1931 7,500 00 

Henry Rosier, due September 16, 1893 1,500 00 

Joseph McConnell, due September 18, 1899 106 00 

Joseph McConnell, due September 18, 1900 100 00 

otto F. Scheunemann, due May 29, 1901 5,000 00 

James B. and Charles Gamer, due January 22, 

1900 4,500 00 

Henry Altman, due August 21:, 1900 8,000 00 

Ole J. I. Bodahl, due September 30, 1900 2,000 00 

Laura E. Ball, due September 7, 1893 1,400 00 



COMMITTEE ON FINANCE. 



103 



Edward Neeley, due March 1, 1900 $ 2,500 00 

Melville S-Nlcbols, due February 10, 1908 12,000 00 

John P. Neal and the Great Western Railroad 
Company, due May 1, 1938 (In the hands of 
the City Comptroller) 650,000 00 

Total mortgage notes 

I^'emium Account— 

Paid on bonds purchased 

^eal Estate— 

The ^'Barker Lot," being the S. 10 feet of Sub 
Lot 3, and the N. 10 feet of Sub Lot 4 of Lots 
7 and 10, In Block 2, Fractional Section 15 Ad- 
dition $ 3,000 00 

The "Basby Lot," being the N. H of Lot 14, In 
Block 60, of Russell, Mather & Roberts' Ad- 
dition to Chicago 850 00 

The "Hegewlsch Property," being Lot 5, In 
Block 10, In Adolph Hegewlsch*s Sub. of part 
of S. J^ of Sec. 81, T. 87 N., R. 15 E 1,500 00 

The *'Bartlett Property," being Lots 55 and 56, 
In Block 4, In Hough & Reed's Addition to 
Washington Heights 400 00 

The **Foot Property," being Lots 2, 3, 4 and 24, 
In Block 1, In Norwood Park, a Sub. In Sec- 
tion 6, T. 40. R. 13 2,000 00 

The "Milieu Property," being the N. H of Lot 
7, In Block 2, In Hill lard & Hltt's Sub. In the 
N. W. 54 of Section 17, T. 37, R. 14 200 00 

The "McAuley & Lake Property," being the 
W. 25 feet of Lot 6, In Block 10, in Auburn 
Park 3,750 00 

Total real estate 

Cash In hands of Wm. A. S. Graham, School 
Agent, June 30, 1899 



$ 712.600 00 



11,415 84 



$ 11,700 00 



14,449 35 



$ 980,215 19 



SPECIAL FUNDS. 

Your Committee has also audited the receipts and expendi- 
tures on account of the various Special Funds held in trust by 
the School Agent, for the year ending June 30, 1899, as follows: 

RECEIPTS. 

Cash on hand June 30, 1898 $ 1,709 65 

Interest on Pt incipcU Invested on Account of— 

Carpenter Fund $ 60 00 

Michael Reese Fund 120 00 

Moseley Book Fund 607 50 



I04 REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES. 



Newberry Fund $ 0000 

W. K. SailivaaFand 18 00 

Bolden Fand 9 00 

Calhoan Fand 88 00 

Sheldon Fund 150 00 

Georfre Howland Fund 70 00 

Jones Fund GO 00 

Foster Medal Fund ' £00 00 

Perkins Bass Fund 256 50 

From Mrs. Hesinj;, on account of Hesing Oer- 

man Fund 14 00 



S 1J58 00 
$ 8,467 



EXPENDITUBES. 

Hesing German Fund $ 18 22 

Sheldon Fund 18 80 

Newberry Fund 76 90 

W. K. Sullivan Fund 86 00 

Charles Kosminski Fund 192 86 

Carpenter Fund 62 02 

Goodrich Fund 18 44 

Perkins Bass Fund IS 00 

Foster Medal Fund 188 75 

Moseley Book Fund 1,062 00 

Michael Reese Fund 182 00 

Jones Fund 58 78 



a J ggQ 22 
Foster Medal Fund — Unexpended balance 

transferred to principal of fund 161 25 

Cash in hands of School Agent June 80, 1899. . . 1,437 18 

$ 8,467 65 

INVESTMENT OF SPECIAL FUNDS. 

Your Committee also reports that they have examined and 
found correct the securities in the hands of the School Agent 
and in the custody of the Royal Trust Company, representing 
the principals of the Special Funds invested as follows : 

Carpenter Fund, City of Chicago 4 per cent bonds. $ 1,000 00 

Michael Reese Fund, City of Chicaf?o 4 per cent 

bonds 2,000 00 

Newberry Fund, City of Chicago 4 per cent bonds . . 1,000 00 

W. K. Sullivan Fund, City of Chicago 4 per cent 

bonds 300 00 

Holdeii Fund, City of Chicago 4 per cent bonds — 150 00 

Sheldon Fund, City of Chicago 4 per cent bonds. . . 2,500 00 

Calhoun Fund, City of Chicairo 4 per cent bonds. . . $ 100 00 

Calhoun Fund, Chicago City Railway 4^ per cent 

bonds 400 00 

500 00 



COMMITTEE ON FINANCE. I05 



Moseley Book Fund, City of Chicago 8 65 per cent 

bonds $ 10,000 00 

Mortgage note 1,000 00 

$ 11,0C0 00 

Foster Medal Fund, 6 per cent mortgage notes 5,000 00 

Jones Fand, 6 per cent mortgage note 1,000 00 

Perkins Bass Fund, 6 per cent mortgage note - 3,350 00 

Total amount invested $ 27,800 00 

Cash in the hands of the School Agent for invest- 
ment 2,688 13 



Amount of Special Funds investment account, June 

80,1899 S 30,488 13 



JONATHAN BURR FUND. 

Your Committee submits the following statement of the 
receipts and expenditures on account of the Jonathan Burr 
Fund, held in trust by the City Comptroller for the use of 
schools, for the year ending June 30, 1899: 

BECBIPTS. 

Cash on hand In City Treasury June 30, 1898 $ 100 68 

Interest on principal invested 1,881 24 

$ 1,981 82 

EXPENDITURES. 

Text books for indigent pupils $ 606 67 

Cash on hand in City Treasury June 30, 1899 I,3*<i5 IS 

$ 1,931 82 

Your Committee also submit a statement of the amount 
now invested and on hand belonging to the principal of the 
Jonathan Burr Fund, the revenue of which is applicable to the 
purchase of books of reference, apparatus, works of art, text 
books, etc., for the use of schools: 

Principal of fund, June 30, 1898 $ 32,700 00 

Invested as follows : 

2i City of Chicago 4 per cent bonds $ 14,700 00 

1 City of Chicago 3.65 per cent bonds 500 00 

1 Cook County 4 per cent bond 500 00 

• 2 City of Chicago 4 per cent water certificates 2,000 00 

S 17,700 00 

Cash on hand in City Treasury June 30, 1893. . . . 15,000 00 

S 32,700 00 



io6 



REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES. 



STATEMENT OF BONDED INDEBTEDNESS OF SUNDRY ANNEXED SCHOOL DISTRICTS ASSUMED BT 

THE CITT OF CHICAGO AND OUTSTANDING JUNE 80, 1899- 

Payable. In t. per cen t . 

September 10 6 

September 10 6 



DU 


. T. 


R. 


Bonds. 


Due. 




Int. Coupons 


5 


37, 


14 


9 1.000 


March 10, 


1900 


March 10, 








800 


March 10, 


1901 


March 10, 


7 


87, 


14 


6,000 


August 1, 


1893 


February 1, 








6,000 


Jane 1, 


1909 


June 1, 


1 


87, 


15 


20.000 


February 1, 


1907 


February 1, 








85,000 


August 1, 


1908 


February 1, 


1 


88, 


14 


10,000 


July 1, 


1900 


January 1, 








10,000 


July 1, 


1901 


January 1, 








10,000 


July 1, 


1902 


January 1, 








5,000 


July 1, 


1900 


January 1, 








5.000 


July 1, 


1901 


January 1, 








5,000 


July 1, 


1902 


January 1, 








15,000 


July 1, 


1908 


January 1, 








15,000 


July 1, 


1904 


January 1, 








15,000 


July 1, 


1905 


January 1, 








15,000 


July 1, 


1906 


January 1, 








15,000 


July 1. 


1907 


January 1, 


2 


38, 


14 


15,000 


September 1, 


1899 


March 1, 








15,000 


September 1, 


1900 


March 1, 








15,000 


September 1, 


1901 


March 1, 








15,000 


September 1, 


1902 


March 1, 








15,000 


September 1, 


1908 


March 1, 








15.000 


September 1, 


1934 


March 1, 








15,000 


September 1, 


1905 


March 1, 








15,000 


Septemblr 1, 


1906 


March 1, 








15,000 


September 1, 


1907 


March 1, 








15,000 


September 1, 


1903 


March 1, 


4 


88. 


14 


2,000 


February 1, 


1900 


February 1, 








2,000 


February 1, 


1901 


February 1, 








2.000 


February 1, 


1902 


February 1, 


6 


38, 


14 


11,000 


June 1, 


1900 


June 1, 


10 


38, 


14 


41,000 


June 1, 


1908 


June 1, 








41,000 


June 1, 


1908 


June 1, 


11 


40, 


13 


8,500 


November 1, 


1900 


May 1, 








3,000 


May 1, 


1902 


May 1, 


1 


40, 


14 


500 


September 1. 


1889 










60.000 


September 1, 


1902 


March 1, 








40,000 


September 1, 


1906 


March 1, 


3 


40, 


14 


1.000 


. July 1, 


1900 


January 1, 








1,000 


July 1, 


1901 


January 1, 


H.S. 40, 


14 


25,000 


July 1, 


,1905 


January 1, 



August 

December 

August 

Auftust 

July 

July 

July 

July 

July 

July 

July 

July 

July 

July 

July 

September 

September 

September 

September 

September 

September 

September 

September 

September 

September 

August 

August 

August 

December 

December 

December 

November 

November 



September 

September 

July 

July 

July 



5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 

4Vi 
4^ 
4^ 

4Vi 
4% 
4^ 
4V4 

5 
5 
5 
5 
6 
5 
5 
5 
5 
6 
5 
5 
5 
7 
5 
5 
6 
5 
6 
5 
& 
5 
5 
5 



Total $571,800 

Net decrease in bonded indebtedness during the school year, $34,000. 



COMMITTEE ON FINANCE. 107 

CONDENSED STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES FOR 

THE SCHOOL YEAR 1898-9. 

To the Board of Education of the City of Chicago : 

The total available for the school year, ending June 30, 
1899, was as follows: 

CoBh balances on hand June 30y 1898— 

Account School Tax Fund $ 9«7.875 74 

Account School Fund Income Act 187,375 48 

Account Jonathan Burr Fund 100 58 

Cash in hands of the School Agent account 

Special Funds Income Act 1,709 65 

$ 1,116,661 45 

RECBIPTS. 

Prom city school tax, 1897-8 $7,117,92161 

From State tax per capita 281,169 98 

Tuition deaf mutes 1897 and 1898 34,021 79 

From rentals 467,231 83 

From interest 46,192 05 

From investments account Jonathan Burr Fund . . 1,831 21 

From investments and donations account Special 

Funds 1,758 00 

From miscellaneous sources 9,432 19 

$ 7,909,668 69 

$ 9,026,120 14 

T/ie items qf expenditure are as follows— 

Superintendents* and teachers* salaries, pri- 
mary and grammar schools $ 3,975,382 75 

New school sites and additions to old sites 158,829 69 

New school buildinsrs and incidental expenses 

in connection with the erection of same 1,000,668 69 

Furnishintr new buildings 22,986 45 

Permanent improvements, alteration of old 
buildings, substituting steam heat for fur- 
naces, etc 194,144 39 

Taxes and special assessments 28,061 09 

Gleneral repairs to buildings, furniture, heating 

and ventilating apparatus 469.709 68 

Salaries engineers and janitors grammar and 

primary schools 399.309 69 

Official salaries 70.700 53 

Evening schools 89,537 78 

Fuel, grammar and primary schools 155,387 79 

School supplies, including ink, paper, pens, 

pencils, crayons, stationery, etc 49,568 32 

School libraries, reference books, maps, charts, 

globes, etc 36,739 81 

School house supplies, printing and advertising 30.965 65 

Text books for indigent pupils 45,M4 31 



io8 



REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES. 



Bentals of sites and buildings $ 93,829 89 

Compulsory education 15,8M 97 

Abstracts of title, court costs, attomey*s fees, 

etc 716 66 

Matured bonds and interest coupons of an- 
nexed school districts 63,886 68 

Care and management of School Fund 4,189 79 

On account school census, 1898 2,168 64 

Contingent Fund, educational accoun t 8,862 06 

Contingent Fund, building account 768 82 

Special Funds, text books, medals, prises, etc. . 2,030 47 

Manual Training at tJu House of Cor- 
rection— 

Teachers* salaries $ 10,587 00 

For salaries engineer and janitor, 
fuel, tools, shop supplies, ma- 
chinery, etc 5,758 12 

% 16,295 U 

High SchooU— 

Superintendent and teachers* sal- 
aries % 441,188 47 

Salaries of engineer, janitors and 
stenographer, fuel, apparatus, 
laboratory supplies, gas, refer- 
ence books, diplomas, print- 
ing, drawing supplies, rebind- 

ing books, etc 50,780 44 

% 491,968 91 

English High and Manual Trainittg 
School— 

Teachers' salaries $ 30,464 50 

Salaries engineer and janitor,rent, 
fuel, gas and electric light, 
electric motor, machinery and 
tools, lumber, hardware, nails, 
laboratory supplies, foundry 
supplies, printing, drawing 
supplies, reference books, re- 
binding books, maps, charts, 
piano, caies, desks and type- 
writers, electric wiring, mis- 
cellaneous repairs, electric 

power for running machinery. 18,851 66 

$ 44,316 16 

Manual Training in Orammar Schools— 

Teachers* salaries $ 31,369 50 

Tools, machinery, shop supplies, 

etc ^ 24,645 89 

$ 56,015 39 

Noi'tnal Schocl— 

Teachers* salaries $ 55,403 12 



COMMITTEE ON FINANCE. 1 09 



Salaries engineer and Janitor, fuel, 
gas, rent of branc-hes, salaries 
and supplies printing depart- 
ment, salary of gardener and 
care of grounds, laboratory 
supplies, reference books, 

diplomas, apparatus, etc 11,500 85 

$ 68,903 97 

l>rawing— 

Teacbers* salaries % 19,077 50 

Paper, models, pencils, books, 

stenographer, scissors, etc. . . . 14,280 46 

% 88,357 96 

Music— 

Teachers' salaries $ 20,954 50 

Songd, piano tuner, stenographer, 

printing, etc 5,576 12 

$ 26,530 62 

German— 

Teachers* salaries % 170,615 S2 

Text books, tablets, printing, etc. 1,478 50 

% 172,098 82 

PhysiccU Culture— 

Teachers* salaries $ 18,163 25 

Wands, dumb l>ells, Indian clubs, 

etc 649 85 

$ 13,813 10 

Kindergartens— 

Teachers* salaries $ 74,732 75 

Supplies, etc 4,347 66 

$ 79,680 41 

Deaf Mute Schools- 

Teachers* salaries $ 14,960 76 

Salary of janitor, fuel, text books, 

etc 704 32 

$ 15,674 08 

Household Arts— 

Teachers* salaries $ 8,803 38 

Supplies 3,986 49 

$ 12,789 78 

$ 7,037,033 84 

Cash in City Treasury, June SO, 1S99— 

Account School Tax Fund .*. $ 884,895 93 

Account School Fund Income 201,428 54 

Account Jonathan Burr Fund 1.325 15 

$ 1,087,649 62 

Cash in the Hands of the School Ageid— 

Account Special Funds Income 1,437 18 

$ 9,026,120 14 

Dues on account School Tax Levy, 1898 $2,418,867 26 - ~ 

Less estimated loss and cost of collection 298,805 09 



Net expectancy S2,120,062 16 

Respectfully submitted, 



JOSEPH DOWNEY. 
CLAYTON MARK, 
BERNARD F. ROGERS'. 
JOSEPH S. SCHWAB. 
HOWARD H. GROSS. 

Committee on Finance, 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON BUILDINGS AND 

GROUNDS* 



To the Board of Education of the i ^ity of Chicago: 

Your Committee on Buildings and Grounds, in making its 
forty-fifth annual report, is obliged to show a smaller propor- 
tion of building operations than in preceding years, by reason 
of many circumstances which have badly hampered them and 
resulted in largely increased expense in the building depart- 
ment. 

As shown in the last annual report, it was deemed advis- 
able by the Board to erect more permanent structures, and the 
policy of making all new buildings fireproof was adopted. As 
the appropriations for the buildings affected by this policy had 
been made some time previous, no allowance for the increased 
€ost of such construction was provided, and of necessity the 
award of contracts involved an expenditure of about twenty- 
five per cent over and above the appropriations. 

After the Board had made contracts for two such buildings, 
it appeared to your Committee that a continuance of this policy 
would so cripple the building fund as to defeat the aim of pro- 
viding much needed accommodation for school children, and it 
was deemed advisable to reject all bids on the Darwin School 
and so revise the plans as to bring the cost within the appro- 
priation. A new difficulty now presented itself. During the 
revision of the plans by the Architect of the Board, there came 
a very rapid rise in the price of all building material and of 



112 REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES. 

labor, and this rise was so marked and so rapid that the 
schedule of bids showed no material saving in cost by reason of 
the changes. 

Every attempt has been made to reduce the cost by elim- 
inating many desirable improvements, yet the appropriations 
were inadequate with a very few exceptions, on account of the 
limited appropriation for this year. 

In January, your Committee conferred with the Superin- 
tendent of Schools and District Siiperintendents in order to find 
out where the demands for school accommodation were most 
urgent, and the appropriation was divided to meet these wants 
as far as it would go. This and other difficulties has required 
the preparation of new plans and specifications for a number of 
buildings. 

Although the City Council has been working with the 
interests of the public schools at heart, yet their failure to fully 
grasp the situation and understand the necessity for prompt 
action upon school matters has resulted in holding back their 
support of many improvements which are sadly needed, and 
have greatly em harassed the Board in their strenuous efforts to 
provide accommodations for thousands of the school children. 

There are now a large number of needed improvements 
which could be undertaken by the building department with 
great advantage, but unfortunately are tied up in Council Com- 
mittees and are awaiting the reconvening of the Council. 

The force of the situation will be plainly apparent upon an 
examination of the following tables Showing the buildings com- 
pleted and commenced during the past school year. 



COMMITTEE ON BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS. 



113 



SCHOOL BUILDINGS FINISHED DURING 1898-99. 



SCHOOL AND LOCATION. 



Gailistel, Avenue K and 104th 
St 

Frances E. Willard, St. Law- 
rence av. and 49th st 

Bryant Add. , W. 41st. , bet 13th 
and 14th sts 

Lake View High Add., Ash- 
land and Graceland avs 

Lafayette Add., Augusta st. 
and Washtenaw av \ 

Englewood High Add. and 
power house, Stewart av. and 
62d st 

Fallon Add., Wallace and 42d 
sts 

McPherson Add., Wolcott st., 
near Lawrence av 

O'Toole Add., 48th and Bishop 
sts 

Farren Add. , Wabash av. , near 
51st st 

John Spry, Southwest blvd. and 
W. 24th st 

Normal Practice, Stewart av. 
and 68th st. 

Frank J. Jirka, 17th St., bet. 
Laflin and Loomis sts 

Northwest Division High Add., 
Potomac and Claremont avs . 

Moseley, alerations, Michigan 
av. and 24th st 

Alcott Add., Wright wood av. 
and Orchard st 

Motley Add., N, Ada st, near 
Chicagoav 



xn 

O 
O 



*16 
t22 

tio 

*16 
12 

* 5 

tio 

6 
§13 

I 

tl2 
t22 

122 

t22 

6 



* 7 

* 9 



AWARDED. 



Dec. 1, '97 
Dec. 23, '97 
Feb. 9, '98 
Feb. 23, '98 
Feb. 23, '98 

Mar. 23, '98 
Apr. 6, '98 
Apr. 20, '98 
May 18, '98 
May 18, '98 
May 18, '98 
June 15, '98 
June 15; '98 
June 29, '98 
June 29, '98 
July 27, '98 
Aug. 24, '98 



OPENED. 



Sept. 6. '98 
Sept. 6, '98 
Sept. 6. '98 
Jan. 6, '99 
Sept. 8, '99 

Feb. 14, '99 
Jan. 4, '99 
Sept. 6, '98 
Jan. 23, '99 
Mar. 23. '99 
Sept. 11, '99 
May 1, '99 
Apr. 10, '99 
Jan. 23, '99 

Feb. 8, '99 
Mar. 22, '99 



COST. 



$ 70,000 00 

83,500 00 

35,500 00 

125,000 00 

42,500 00 

63,400 00 

54,000 00 

20,000 00 

48,000 00 

80,000 00 

105,000 00 

110,000 00 

88,500 00 

25,000 00 

2,600 00 

47,000 00 

40,000 00 



*With Assembly Hall. 

tWith Assembly Hall, Kindergarten and Manual Training. 

fWltb Assembly Hall and Kindergarten. 
With Kindergarten. 
With Assembly Hall and Manual Training. 

In addition to the above, kindergarten rooms have been 
fitted up in five old buildings, manual training rooms in two 
buildings, and new class rooms in five school buildings; fire 



114 



REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES. 



escapes have been placed on five buildings, and miscellaneous 
alterations and improvements made in three buildings. Some 
of this miscellaneous work is not entirely completed, but will 
be ready before the opening of schools in September. 

SCHOOL BUILDINGS COMMENCED, BUT NOT 'COMPLETED 

DURING 1898-99. 



SCHOOL AND LOCATION. 



Eugene Field Add , Ashland and Greenleaf 
avs 

Win field Scott Schley, Oakley av., near 
Division st 

George Dewey, 54th st. and Union av 

Darwin, Edgewood av. and Catalpa pi 

Madison Av. Add., Madison av., near 75th 
st 

West Pullman Add., 120th st. and Pamell 
av 

Prescott Add., Wrightwood and Ashland 
avs 

Robert A. Waller High, Orchard and Cen- 
ter sts 



en 

o 
o 



*12 

t22 

t22 
t22 

8 

12 

tl2 

§15 



AWARDED. 



Nov. 2, '98 

Sept. 7, '98 
Feb. 8, '99 
June 14. '99 

Apr. 5, '99 

Apr. 19, '99 

May 3, '99 

May 17, '99 



EST. COST. 



$ 50,000 00 

105,000 00 
112,000 00 
105,000 00 

47,000 00 

43.000 00 

62,000 00 

150,000 00 



*Wlth Klndergrarten. 

tWith Assembly Hall, Kindergarten and Manual Training. 

$With Assembly Hall. 

Swith Laboratories, etc. 

Plans have been prepared and proposals received for a 
lo-room and assembly hall addition to the Charles Warrington 
Earle School, and a 19-room building to take the place of the 
present Calumet Avenue School. 

There are also in course of preparation a 12 -room addition 
to the Dore School, and a 15 -room addition to the Avondale 
School, which will be contracted for in the near future. 

In addition to these, the plans and specifications for a 22- 
room building on the new site on Calumet avenue, between 



COMMITTEE ON BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS. II 5 

Forty-first and Forty-second streets, and the plans for a 12- 
room building on the site at Selwyn avenue and West Cullom 
Street are entirely completed, but the Architect is unable to 
proceed further until the City Council shall grant the necessary 
increase in appropriations. 

As soon as the plans now on the boards are completed, 
work will be commenced on the plans for a 12 -room addition to 
the Auburn Park School; also an 8 -room building at the corner 
of Sawyer avenue and Fifty-third street, which will complete 
all important work which is not in some way tied up. 

Additional rooms and necessary repairs and improvements 
to a number of old buildings are ready for contracts or rapidly 
reaching completion, and will be available for use early in 
the fall. 

No radical changes have been made in the arrangement of 
rooms or the latest improvements for the convenience and com- 
fort of the children, but it has been found necessary to elimi- 
nate some features which seemed more for embellishment than 
essential from a standpoint of economy. This simplicity of 
design has resulted in considerable saving in cost without the 
sacrifice of attractiveness. 

In the new Robert A. Waller High School, your Committee 
believe that a degree of excellence has been attained which is 
rarely equaled. The general arrangement of the class rooms 
and special departments has been very carefully studied, until 
the convenience and equipment will stand on par with the very 
best examples in the United States, in spite* of the fact that the 
entire expense will not reach the cost of similar accommoda- 
tions in such cities as Philadelphia, Springfield, Mass., and 



Il6 REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES. 

Detroit. The exterior is designed in classic style and will be 
of a monumental character. 

It has seemed best to your Committee to modify somewhat 
the extent of fireproof construction, and they are now strongly 
of the opinion that fireproof floors in the corridors, with iron 
stairs leading to all exits, affords ample protection, as a com- 
paratively small number of children are confined in each room 
and are beyond danger as soon as they reach the corridors. 
Each room is entirely enclosed with fireproof walls or parti- 
tions, and the ceilings are protected by wire lath and plaster. 
This modification results in the saving of thousands of dollars. 

Your Committee feels great satisfaction in the prospects for 
a largely increased building fund, for they realize the enor- 
mously increasing demand for school accommodations in such a 
progressive city, and believe that with the same practice of 
economy as has prevailed during the past year they can make a 
vastly better showing for the building department. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Bernard F. Rogers, 
Joseph Downey, 
Clayton Mark, 
Jesse Sherwood, 
Thomas Gallagher, 
Daniel R. Cameron, 
Austin O. Sexton, 
Frank J. Loesch, 
C. R. Walleck, 
Committee on Buildings and Grounds. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS* 



To the Hofiorable Board of Educatio?i: 

Ladies and Gentlemen — I have the honor to submit be- 
low the Forty-fourth Annual Report of the Chicago Schools' 
Superintendency, being for the year which ended with June, 
1899. 

During said year 242,807 different pupils were enrolled for 
instruction under the auspices of the Board, the cost of instruc- 
tion being thirty per cent of the total sum paid out by the city 
government during said year. 

By declining re-election for another year Mrs. Ella F. 
Young has severed her connection with the Public School Sys- 
tem of Chicago. Mrs. Young is a woman of rare talent, 
untiring energy, large acquirements and ripe educational ex- 
perience, who has deservedly won a host of admiring and 
devoted friends. As teacher, principal and superintendent she 
has served the city for thirty-seven years. I deeply regret her 
withdrawal from the position she has so ably filled, yet con- 
gratulate the educational public on the promise that her pro- 
fessional labors, though in another field, will still be continued. 

Francis W. Parker has resigned his position as principal of 
the Normal School. A commanding personality is thus re- 
moved from connection with the Public Schools. Mr. Parker's 
reputation has become national, owing to his enthusiastic, pro- 
gressive, and, in the main, wise work in behalf of public educa- 
tion. His ideas are broad and noble, his influence over teachers 
strong and stimulating. Fortunately for Chicago this influence 



120 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

also will not cease to be exerted, as Mr. Parker expects to pass 
the remainder of his active life in the city, devoted to the same 
aims that have for so many years inspired the development of 
well-equipped and lofty-minded teachers. 

One of my esteemed colleagues has recently been removed 
by death — Orlando Blackman — supervisor of music in the gram- 
mar grades, who has been employed by the Board of Education 
for no less than thirty-six years, instructing in the elements of 
music thousands of Chicago youth. Mr. Blackman was one of 
the best known and most beloved teachers in Chicago. Kindly, 
genial, and devoted to his art, he made friends of all his pupils, 
whose hearts swelled with painful emotion on learning of his 
death. 

Other members of the school force have died as follows. 
If this report afforded the space I should be glad to remark 
upon the labors and virtues of each of them. 

Henry *J. Zeis, principal Kershaw School. 

Alfred G. Roebuck, Seward School, died Aug. 13, 1898. 

Mary J. C. Ingersoll, Oak* Ridge School, died Dec. 27, 1898. 

Stella Kearns, Mulligan School, died August, 1898. 

Anna E. Cahill, Gladstone School, died October, 1898. 

Katherine Bowen, Mulligan School, died November, 1898. 

Harriet M. Tower, Smyth School. 

Minnie Lincoln, Talcott School, died December 5, 1898. 

Grace A. Eccles, C. W. Earle School, died Jan. 8, 1899. 

Fannie E. Stapley, Wells School, died January, 1899. 

Henry E. Robbins, La Salle School, died January, 1899. 

Louise M. Real, Parkmam School, died Feb. 18, 1899. 

Nellie L. Dickson, Scammon School, died March 5, 1899. 

Minnie L. Brown, Clarke School, died April 20, 1899. 

Francis J. Mooney, Holmes School, died April 25, 1899. 

Jennie E. Carr, Hamilton School, died April. 1899. 

Delia E. Hanlon, David Swing School, died May 9, 1899. 

Lilian Scheferstein, Phil Sheridan School, died May, 1899. 

Annie Glavin. Holmes School, died July 9, 1899. 

Lena E. Sale, Seward School, died July 9, 1899. 

Margaret C. Sanderson, W. P. Nixon School, died July 13, 1899. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 121 

SUMMARY OF SCHOOL STATISTICS. 

SCHOOL ACCOMMODATIONS. 

1898-94. 1894-95. 1895-96. 1896-97. 1897-98. 1898-99 

Buildings owned by the city 269 281 295 316 318 322 

Rooms rented 236 271 296 282 332 343 

TEACHING FORCE. 

. 1895-P6 V . 1896-97 . . 1897-98 . 1898-99 . 

Number of Principals. Male. Female. Male. Female. Male. Female. Male. Female 

In High Schools U 14 . U 14 

In Elementary Schools. . 101 105 108 109 106 111 110 111 

Total number Principals 115 105 122 109 120 111 124 111 

Number of Assistants and 
Teachers— 

In High Schools 130 128 134 130 116 143 164 

In Elementary Schools 3,958 81 4,135 98 4,429 116 4,559 

Manual Training in Ele- 
mentary SchoolG 13 1 17 1 21 1 32 2 

Schools for the Deaf ... . 2 8 2 11 2 14 2 17 

Kindergarten 72 . . . . 108 . . . . 128 . . . . 171 

Chicago Normal 8 15 9 11 9 12 9 18 

Special Teachers 25 23 25 21 25 22 28 20 

xiousenoiu. x\.rts .... .... iv 

Total number Assist- 
ants and Teachers . . 241 4.207 262 4.421 285 4,753 330 4,970 

Total number Princi- 
pals, Assistants and 

Teachers 356 4,312 384 4,530 405 4,863 454 5,081 

Total teaching force 4,668 4,914 5,268 5,535 

SCHOOL CENSUS. 
1890. 1892. 1894. 1896. 1898. 

Total population of 

the city l,20^669 1,438,010 1,567,727 1,619,226 1,851,588 

Under 21 years of age. 473,234 542,163 658,646 694,912 846,622 
Between the ages of 6 

and 21 years 289,433 329,796 403,066 448,597 571,375 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

Between the ages of 4 

and 6 years 68.280 94, 143 90,945 122,964 

Between the ages of 6 

and 14 years 165,621 191,180 228,254 247,706 344.246 

Under 6 years of age . . 183,801 212,367 255,580 243,315 275,247 



*122 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



PUPILS. 

The following statement exhibits the enrollment, member- 
ship, attendance and promotions for each of the departments of 
onr public school system for the last school year : 

A T C I age Arengc Pr. Ct. 

Total naOy Daily of No. of 
SnroU- Member- Attend- Attend- Pro- 

ment. ship. am-e. anoe. motions* 

Xormal 573 472.8 453.5 95.9 435 

In Grades 1-4, incltisive 1<»,960 132.914. 1 122,938.6 92.5 104.692 

In Grades 5-8, inclusive 68.989 62.379.9 58.913.2 94.4 50,237 

In High Schools. 10.123 8.830.6 8,415.1 95.3 6,903 

In Schools for the Deaf 162 134 122.4 91.3 

Total 242.807 .204,731.4 190,842.8 93 2 162.26T 

Whole Numbeb Bmbollei*— 18H-5. 1895-6. 1896-7. 1897-8. 1P93-9. 

Total for the year 201.380 213.825 225.718 236.239 242.807 

Increase over previous year 16,022 12.445 11.893 10.521 6.56» 

Atcbaob Daily Membkbship— 

Total for the year 165,318 177,710 190.471 199,621 204.731 

Increase over previous year 15,651 12,392 12.761 9,150 5.110 

ATEBA6E Daily Attehdahck— 1884-5 1895 6. 1896-7. 1897-8. 1898-9. 

Total for the year 154.216 165,569 178.192 187.034 190.842 

Increase over previous year 14,884 11,353 12,623 8,842 3,808 

Pee Ceht. of Pdhctoal Attehdahce— 

93.3 93.2 93 6 • 3.7 93.2 

SU8PEH8IOK8— 

For absence 3,289 3,539 3.017 2,993 3,080 

For misconduct 184 197 229 230 158 

Average Daily Membership by Grades— 

1894-5 1895-6 1896-7 1897-8 1898-9 

First Grade 36,734 37,032 38.943.4 41.950.3 43,827.7 

Second Grade 29,197.8 32.364.7 32,948.0 22,776.4 33,248.4 

Third Grade 25,504.5 27 284.6 29,623.2 30,110.0 30,088.7 

Fourth Grade 21,460,6 22.860.7 24,655.6 25,767.3 25,749.3 

Total first four 

grades 112,896.9 119,542.0 126,170.2 130,607.0 132.914.1 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 



123 



Fifth Grade.... 

Sixth Grade 

Seventh Grade 
Eighth Grade. . 



Total Grades 5 to 8 , 

Ninth Grade 

Tenth Grade 

Eleventh Grade 

Twelfth Grade 



1894-5. 

18,855.4 

12,484.9 

8,340.0 

5.938.6 

45,790.9 
3,062.5 
1.690.7 
1,095.2 

826.7 



Total High Schools. 6,631.0 

Normal School , 

School for the Deaf 



1896-6. 

20,410.0 

13,879.9 

9,573.3 

6,785.6 

50,649.5 

3,279.4 

2,121.2 

1.190.2 

920.0 

7,519.8 



1896-7. 
22,120.6 

15,605.9 

10,846.3 

7.421.7 

55,994.5 

3,265.8 

2,141.3 

1,453.0 

987.0 

7,847.1 
459.7 



1897-8. 
23,424.1 
16.796.1 
11 691.7 

8,280.2 

60.192.1 
3,535.2 
2.233.2 
1,494.3 
1,169.5 

8,432.2 
389.7 



1898-9. 

23,693.4 
17,586.4 
12,421.9 

8,678.2 

62,379.9 

2,805.1 
2 346.8 
1,540.2 
1,138.5 

8,830.6 
472.8 
134.0 



Total in all Depts... 165,318.8 177,711.3 190,471.5 199 621.0 204,731.4 

Pebcentaoe op Pupils in Each Department— 

1894-5. 1895-6. 1896-7. 1897-8. 1898-9. 

Per cent in Grades 1 to 4 68.29 67.27 66.24 65.43 64.9^ 

Per cent in Grades 5 to 8 • 27.70 28.50 29.40 30.16 30.47 

Per cent in High Schools 4.01 4.23 4.12 4.22 4 31 

Per cent in Normal School .24 .19 .23 

Per cent in Schools for Deaf .07 

Average Number of Pupils to Each Teacher, Not Including Principals or Speciai* 
Teachers— 1894-95. 1895-96. 1896-97. 1897-98. 1898-99. 

In High Schools 40 39 41.5 39.4 34 4 

In Gram, and Prim Schools . . 44 45 45 44 41.8 

Number of Pupils Promoted— 1894 -35. 

First to Second Grade 30,084 

Second to Third Grade 25.568 

Third to Fourth Grade 23,070 

Fourth to Fifth Grade 19,354 



Total in Grades 1 to 4. 



98 076 



Fifth to Sixth Grade 14,443 

Sixth to Seventh Grade 10,604 

Seventh to Eighth Grade 6.958 

Eighth to Ninth Grade 5,453 



Total in Grades 5 to 8 37,448 



1895-96. 


1896-97. 


1897-98. 


U93-99. 


29,042 


29,020 


29,686 


29,91^ 


27,306 


27,857 


26.704 


27,071 


23.354 


25,495 


24,950 


25 525 


20,121 


21,601 


22,267 


22,184 


99,823 


103,973 


103,607 


104,692 


16,669 


17,335 


18,374 


18,812 


11043 


12.763 


13.138 


14,146 


7,656 


8,735 


9,179 


9,799 


5,584 


6,707 


7,277^ 


7,480 


39,952 


45,440 


47,968 


50,237 



Total number promotions in 
Elementary Grades 135,524 



139,775 149,413 151,575 154,929 



124 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

Per Cent of Promotions Based Upon Average Daily Membership— 

1894-%. 1695-96. 1890-97. 1897-98. 1898-99. 

Grades 1 to 4 80.9 83.5 82.4 79.3 78.8 

Grades 5 to 8 82.9 78.9 81.2 79.7 80.5 

Total Elementary Grades 85 5 82. 1 82 79.4 79. 3 

. AGES OF PUPILS. 

The following statement exhibits the ages of pupils at the 
date of their first enrollment during the year for the last six 
years : 

1894-95. 1695-96. 1896-97. 1897-98. 1898-99. 

Under 7 years of age 34,085 35,909 37.766 39,942 40,968 

Between 7 and 8 years 25.748 27,842 28.598 29.070 30.485 

Between 8 and 9 years 23,793 24,957 26,490 27,207 27.617 

Between 9 and 10 years 22.263 23,629 24,486 25.565 26,571 

Between 10 and 11 years 21.840 22,549 23,817 24.544 25.714 

Between 11 and 12 years 19,581 20,874 21,311 22,512 23.204 

Between 12 and 13 years 17.963 19,691 21.211 22,208 22,590 

Between 13 and 14 years 14,408 15,548 17,247 18,636 18,635 

Between 14 and 15 years 9 789 10,185 11.161 12,583 12,620 

Between 15 and 16 years 5,809 5,948 6.232 6,673 6,030 

Between 16 and 17 years 3.081 3,454 3.413 3,480 3.570 

Over 17 years 3.020 3.239 3.986 3.819 3,803 

Total 201.380 213,825 225,718 236,239 242,807 

The following statement exhibits the number in every one 
hundred pupils under the ages given for each of the past six 
years : 

1894-95. 1895-96. 1696-97. 1897-98. 1693-99. 

Under 7 years 16.9 16.8 16 7 16.9 16.9 

Under 8 years 29 7 26.9 29.4 29.2 29.4 

Under 9 years 41.5 41.5 41.1 40.7 40.8 

Under 10 years ; 52.6 52.5 51.9 51.6 51.7 

Underllyears 63.4 63.1 62.5 61.9 62.3 

Under 12 years 73.2 72 9 72.0 71.0 71.9 

Under 13 years 82.1 82.1 81.4 80.9 81.2 

Under 14 years 89.2 89.3 89.0 88.7 88.9 

Under 15 years 94.1 94 1 93.9 91.1 94.1 

Undei 16 years 97.0 96.8 96.7 96.9 97.0 

Under 17 years 98.5 98 5 98.2 98.4 98.4 

Over 17 years 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.6 1.6 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 1 25 

COST PER PUPIL. 

For Tuition Alone- 1894-5. 1895-6. 1896-7. 1897 8. 1898-9. 

Upon number enrolled $17 34 $17 81 $17 56 $18 44 $19 46 

Upon average daily membership. . . 21 09 21 63 21 22 22 34 23 33 

Upon average daily attendance. ... 22 64 23 21 22 69 23 84 26 05 

For Incid«ntal8— 

Upon number enrolled 2 88 2 87 2 91 2 84 2 89 

Upon average daily membership. . . 3 52 3 49 3 52 3 44 3 47 

Upon average daily attendance. ... 3 76 3 74 3 76 3 67 3 73 

Fob All Cubbbnt Expenses (Not Including Repairs, Permanent Improvements, Etc.) 

18«4-5. 1895-6. 1898-7. 1897-8. 1898-9. 

Upon number enrolled $20 22 $20 68 $20 47 $21 28 $22 35 

Upon average daily membership. . . 24 61 25 12 24 75 25 78 26 80 

Upon average daily attendance 26 40 26 95 26 45 27 51 28 78 

« 

The cost for the departments given below is reckoned on 
all current expenses (not including repairs, permanent im- 
provements, etc.): 

Physical Culture — 

Upon number enrolled $ 0. 056 

Upon average daily membership .067 

Upon average daily attendance 072 

Music— 

Upon number enrolled Oil 

Upon average daily membership 134 

Upon average daily attendance 138 

Drawing— 

Upon number enrolled 135 

Upon average daily membership 163 

Upon average daily attendance 174 

Kindebgartsn— 

upon number enrolled 10 92 

Upon average daily membership 20 80 

Upon average daily attendance 23 24 

Manual Trajnino in Elementary Schools— 
upon number enrolled (about 15,000) 3 73 

Evening Schools— 

upon number enrolled 8 04 

upon average daily attendance 20 49 



126 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

High Schools— 

Upon number enrolled $ 53 98 

Upon average daily membership 60 83 

Upon average daily attendance 63 72 

Normal Schools— 

Upon number enrolled 116 76 

Upon average daily membership 141 50 

Upon average daily attendance 147 28 

ScuooLS for the Deaf— 

Upon number enrolled 96 74 

Upon average daily membership 116 97 

Upon average daily attendance 128 87 

John Worthy School— 

Upon number enrolled 1 92 

Upon average daily attendance 14 42 

Vacation Schools— 
Upon average daily membership 3 15 

SCHOOL MEMBERSHIP AND ATTENDANCE. 

The statistics required by the State law do not include 
children between four and six years of age, hence the following" 
totals do not embrace the summaries for the kindergartens. 

The total enrollment of pupils during the year was 242,807, 
an increase of 6,568 or 2.8 per cent over that of the preceding 
year. The average daily membership was 204,731, an increase 
of 5,110 or 2.6 per cent over that of the preceding year. The 
average daily attendance was 190,842, an. increase of 3,808 or 
2 per cent over that of the preceding year. 

The average daily attendance for .the year 1898-9 was 78-5 
per cent of the total enrollment, and the average daily mem- 
bership 84.4 per cent of the enrollment. The average daily 

attendance for the year 1887-8, prior to the annexation of sur- 
rounding towns, was 74.6 per cent of the total enrollment; 
and the average daily membership then was 79.9 per cent of 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 1 27 

the total enrollment. For the year 1897-8 the two averages 
named were, respectively, 79.2 and 84.5. It will be observed 
that each of these averages is slightly less for the year last 
past than for the year 1897-8. 

Sixty-four and ninety-two hundredths per cent of the 
average daily membership for the year were in grades 1-4, 
inclusive; thirty and forty-seven hundredths per cent in grades 
5-8, inclusive, and four and fifty -four hundredths in the high 
schools and the normal school. These figures display a grati- 
fying increase in the proportion of the public school pupils 
attending in the higher grades, as is set forth more fully in the 
following table : 

1882-3. 1887-8. 1892-3. 1897-8. 1898-9 

Per cent in primary grades, I to IV 77. 07 74. 85 70. 57 65. 43 64. 92 

Per cent in grammar grades, V to VIII. . .20.73 22.23 35.64 30.15 30.47 
Per cent in high and normal schools 2. 25 2. 82 3. 79 4. 42 4. 54 

The following ** Table of Persistence," read diagonally 
downward and to the right, shows how the number of the 
pupils entering school in a given year decreases from year 
to year. The percentage in each case is the percentage of 
the class when it entered upon its first grade which still re- 
mained in school when it had attained the grade where the 
given percentage appears. Thus what may be called the class 
of 1898, maturing or graduating as eighth graders in that year, 
had for its eighth grade year a membership which was 28. 8 per 
cent of the membership of the same class during its first grade 
year. In its first high school year the same class had but 1 5 
per cent of its initial or original size. 



128 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



TABLE OF PERSISTENCE. 



Grade. 



1st. 
Sod. 



3rd. 



4(h. 



5th. 



6th. 



7th. 



8th 

9th— 
Hifrh 
School I 
10th ^ 
HUh I 
School 



1889-90 



85,788 



1890-91 



s;6,669 

28,197 
89.99( 



1891-92 



26,684 

24,606 
92 3)( 

20,706 
80.3^ 



1892-93 



25,442 

88.7j< 

22,769 

85.4K 

16,938 
65.7J( 



1893-94 1894-95 



26,985 
91.5^ 

24,088 

20,294 
76.9J( 

15,727 
61J< 



29,480 33,538 ] 36,734 



29,198 
87.1J( 

85,.504 
86&)( 

24,460 

74.5jt 

18.855 
70 7J< 

12,484 
8,340 



5,939 



1895-96 



37,032 

32,365 

881^ 

27.285 
81.4)1 

22.861 
77.5)( 

20.411 
71.2?< 

13.880 

9.578 
87.1)( 

6,786 



1896-97 



38.943 

38,948 

8»^ 

29.623 

80.6)( 

24.656 
78.5?k 

22,121 

75j( 

15.606 
54.4)( 

10.846 
40.7J( 

7.482 

28.8)( 



1897-98 



41,950 

88,776 

84.2^ 

80,113 
81.3^ 

25.768 
70.2 

23,484 

ran 

16,796 
67lf 

11,692 
43.8)( 

8,280 

'Sin 

3,852 

16)( 



1898-9^ 



43,828 
33.248 

rin 

30.089 
77.2 Jt 

25,749 
69.5« 

23,673 
64.4)»^ 

17,586 
52.1^ 

12,422 
42.1^ 

8.67& 
32.5)( 

2,805 
10.5jfr 

2,347 



NEW SCHOOL ACCOMMODATIONS. 

Four new school buildings, and eleven additions to build- 
ings have been completed and occupied during the year. 

The Frances E. Willard School, St. Lawrence avenue and 
Forty-ninth street, opened September 6, 1898, 22 rooms, assem- 
bly hall, kindergarten and manual training shop. Number of 
seats, 1,008. 

The Lake View High School, new building, Ashland and 
Graceland avenues, opened January 6. 1899, with 16 rooms and 
an assembly hall. Number of seats, 763. 

The Normal Practice School, Stewart avenue and Sixty- 
eighth street, opened May i, 1899, with 22 rooms, an assembly 
hall and manual training shop. Number of seats, 1,104. 

The Frank J. Jirka School, Seventeenth street, between 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 129 

Laflin and Loomis streets, opened April lo, 1899, with 22 
rooms, an assembly hall and kindergarten. Number of seats 
1,176. 

The Gallistel School, new building. Avenue K and One 
Hundred and Fourth street, opened September 6, 1898, with 16 
rooms and an assembly hall. Number of seats, 864. 

The Bryant School addition. West Forty-first street, be- 
tween Thirteenth and Fourteenth streets, opened September 6, 
1898, with 10 rooms, an assembly hall and kindergarten. 
Number of new seats, 528. 

The Lafayette School addition, A<ngusta street and Wash- 
tenaw avenue, opened September 8, 1898, with 12 rooms. 
Number of new seats, 576. 

The Englewood High School addition, Stewart avenue 
and Sixty-second street, opened February 14, 1899, with 5 
rooms and an assembly hall. Number of new seats, 288. 

The Fallon School addition, Wallace and Forty-second 
streets, opened January 4, 1899, with 10 rooms, an assembly 
hall and kindergarten. Number of new seats, 713. 

The McPherson School addition, Walcott street, near 
Lawrence avenue, opened September 8, 1898, with 6 rooms. 
Number of new seats, 288. 

The O'Toole School addition, Forty-eighth and Bishop 
streets, opened January 23, 1899, with 13 rooms and kinder- 
garten. Number of new seats, 651. 

The Farren School addition, Wabash avenue, near Fifty- 
first street, opened March 23, 1899, with 12 rooms, an assembly 
hall, kindergarten and manual training shop. Number of new 
seats, 558. 

The Northwest Division High School addition, Potomac 



I30 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



and Claremont avenues, opened January 23, 1899, with 6 rooms. 
Number of new seats 240. 

The Alcott School addition, Wrightwood avenue and Or- 
chard street, opened * February 8, 1899, with 7 rooms and an 
assembly hall. Number of new seats, 336. 

The Motley School addition. North Ada street, near Chi- 
cago avenue, opened March 22, 1899, with 9 rooms and an 
assembly hall. Number of new seats, 480. 

One new school will be ready for occupation in September, 
1900, viz: the John Spry, Southwest boulevard and West 
Twenty-fourth street. It has 22 rooms, assembly hall, kinder- 
garten and manual training shop. Number of new seats, 1,188. 

Four other schools and four additions are in process of 
construction, which will afford 5,424 new seats. 

The following table gives statistics of school accommoda- 
tions for the last ten years. 

Increase over 

preceding Pupils in 

Seats in build- year in build- Half -day Ses- 

ings owned ings owned Seats in sions at close 

by city. by city. Rented Rooms. of year. 

1890 113.592 Annexation. 5,476 * 

1891 121.159 7.567 7.628 15,773 

1892 132,465 11,306 8,773 18.069 

1898 141,968 9,503 10,862 14,375 

1894 162,127 20,159 10,867 14,086 

1895 174,205 12.078 12,643 17,545 

1896 188.724 14.519 13,507 15,036 

1897 202,194 13,470 12,368 12,475 

1898 204,124 1,930 14.807 17,235 

1899 213,753 9,629 15,545 16,210 

There were 13,015 children attending school in rented 
rooms at the close of 1898, and 13,439 at the close of 1899, an 
increase of 424. There were 17,235 children in half-day sessions 
at the close of 1898, and 16,210 at the close of 1899, ^ decrease 
of 1,025. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 131 

As the number of seats in buildings owned by the city — 
213,753 — (to say nothing of seats in rented rooms) is greater 
than the average daily membership of pupils — 204,731, it is 
evident that some buildings are but partly filled. Obviously, 
in so great a system, demand and supply cannot be made to 
correspond exactly. Close watch needs to be kept upon the ebb 
and flow of population in the different quarters of the city, to 
the end that the number of buildings in any district where 
school population is yearly diminishing may be lessened, and 
the proceeds devoted to the erection of needed buildings in the 
crowded districts. 

THE TEACHING FORCE. 

« 

The whole number of principals and teachers employed 
during the year under review was 5,535, an increase of 267 for 
the year. There were 107 resignations, and leave of absence 
for varying periods of time was granted to 144. The total 
number of new assignments for the year was 479, of which 249 
were graduates of the City Normal School who had served as 
cadets, 140 were experienced teachers, 54 were kindergartners, 
25 were teachers of German, 7 were teachers of household arts, 
and 4 were teachers of manual training. 

EXAMINATIONS. 

Examinations for various positions were held with the fol- 
lowing results : 

Number Number 
Examined. Successful. 

Aug. 26, 1898— Teachers of Household Arts 21 15 

Sept. 24, 1898— Teachers of Household Arts 26 13 

Sept. 24. 1898— Principals of Evening Schools 52 13 

Oct. 4, 1898— Teachers of Physical Culture 3 3 

Nov. 25, 1898 — Teachers of Drawing in High Schools. ..31 4 

Dec. 10, 1898 — Admission to Normal Scl^ool 305 73 



i 



132 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



Number Number 
Examined. Successful, 

Dec. 16, 1898— Teachers of Manual Training 24 5 

Oec. 17. 1898— Teachers of Household Arts 7 5 

Jan. 23, 1899— Teachers of Elocution in Normal School. 8 4 
Jan, 23, 1899 — Teachers of Physical Culture in Normal 

School 19 7 

June 9, 1899— Kindergartners 152 100 

June 12, 1899— Teachers of Household Arts 14 11 

June 13, 1899— Admission to Normal 677 183 

June 16, 1899— Teachers of the Deaf 8 6 

June 26, 1899— Teachers of Manual Training 11 5 

June 27, 1899— Principals of Elementary Schools 99 12 

June 27, 1899— Teachers of Elementary Schools 350 102 

June 27. 1899— Teachers of High Schools 274 56 

June 27, 1899— Teachers of German in Elementary Schools 15 9 

June 27, 1899— Teachers of German in High Schools. . . 13 5 

June 27, 1899— Teachers of French in High Schools 15 3 

Totals 2,124 634 



THE CHICAGO SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

THE PHYSICAL BASIS OF EDUCATION. 

The child is an organism dependent for its comfort and 
harmonious development on its environment, natural and arti- 
ficial. The natural environment we cannot control, the artific- 
ial is largely our creation. If the artificial environment is not 
consonant with natural law, we obviously injure the child. For 
nearly eight months in the year pupils are confined in artific- 
ially heated school rooms ; during ten months they are allowed 
but little movement within the same rooms. Perfect ventila- 
tion, absolutely fresh air constantly available for all children, 
is very difficult to obtain. Yet without it the pupils cannot be 
vigorous. 

Again, childhood demands much movement for the right 
growth of muscles, bones, organs, the whole frame. The in- 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 133 

troduction of constructive work into all grades of the elemen- 
tary schools is desired, I believe, by all the district superintend- 
ents and has an increasing host of enthusiastic supporters 
among principals and teachers. It seems to be aiding in the 
solution of the problem of physical development. The old idea 
of school-room discipline was motionless silence; the new one 
is silent movement. Such is the course of the planets and 
stars; such the growth of plants and the main motions of the 
animal world. 

Scientific training of the muscles helps develop a perfect 
body. The introduction of gymnastic apparatus and exercises 
into the schools is of the greatest service to the children. 
Sixty- five schools are now more or less completely equipped 
with apparatus. I trust that this movement may continue till 
all the schools in the city are provided with satisfactory appara- 
tus of this kind. Our long winters make this regular indoor 
exercise especially desirable. 

Of the city schools eight are without playgrounds and 
thirteen have playgrounds on but one side. It is hoped that 
for the sake of the children in the districts referred to these con- 
ditions may soon be improved. Pure air, water and food, and 
imrestrained development are essential. The prevalence of 
privation and ignorance in these particulars on the part of our 
great city population cannot but result in seriously sapping the 
vigor of the nation. There are signs that this danger is real- 
ized ; still, constant instruction and warning are necessary, and 
the influence of the public schools cannot be too pronounced in 
this important matter. 



134 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



KINDERGARTENS. 



On April 17, 1875, was passed the following addition to the 
general school law of the State ; paragraph 330, section i : 

Be it ejiactcd by the People of the State of Illinois^ repre- 
sented in the General Assembly : That in addition to other 
grades or departments now established and maintained in the 
public schools of the State, any school district managed by a 
board of education or a board of directors is hereby empowered, 
when authorized by a majority of all the votes cast at an elec- 
tion for that purpose, such election to be called and held in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of Article IX of an act entitled 
** An act to establish and maintain a system of free schools," 
approved and in force May 21, 1889, to establish in connection 
with the public schools of such district a kindergarten or kinder- 
gartens for the instruction of children between the ages of four 
and six years, to be paid for in the same manner as other grades 
and departments now established and maintained in the public 
schools of such district. No money accruing to such district 
from the school tax fund of the State shall be used to def ra)'' the 
tuition or other expenses of such kindergarten, but the same 
shall be defrayed from the local tax and the special school rev- 
enue of said district. 

For several years kindergartens have been maintained by 
the Board of Education without legalized action under the law. 
On January 25, 1899, the President and Secretary' of the Board 
were instructed to wait on the Mayor and Common Council and 
request them to join with the Board in application to the proper 
authorities, requiring the proposition for and against the estab- 
lishment of such kindergartens as the Board of Education may 
desire to maintain to be placed upon the ballots to be used at 
the forthcoming spring election. 

This action was taken and the proposition was placed upon 
the ballots in the following form : 



**Proposed establishment in connection with the Yes 

public schools of Chicago of kindergartens 

for the instruction of children between the j 

ages of four and six years." I No 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 135 

At the election of April 4, 1899, 87,972 votes were cast in 
favor of kindergartens, 15,878 against ; a majority of 72,094. 

To the efforts of Mrs. Isabelle O'Keeffe, of the Board of 
Education, much credit is due for the result attained. 

Eighty-four kindergartens are now maintained by the 
Board with a total enrollment of 7,241 pupils, and they have be- 
come a legalized part of the school system. Their benefit to 
the community has been undoubted. They are another evi- 
dence of the tendency of the people to place the training of 
children more largely in the hands of skilled teachers. Some 
have apprehended in this a danger to the independence of the 
family. It is bejieved, however, that happier and better 
trained child lives will strengthen the family life of the coming 
generation by the noble ideals and harmonious action so early 
inculcated. 

I second, as I am sure the Architect will do, the recom- 
mendation of the Supervisor that kindergartens should not be 
placed in basements likely to be damp and injurious to these 
young and tender lives, but in the best rooms available. 

1897-8. 1898-9. 

Number of kindergartens 63 84 

Total enrollment of pupils 5,546 7,241 

Average daily membership 2,904 3,801 

Average daily attendance 2,607 3,402 

Per cent of attendance 89.8 89.5 

CONSTRUCTIVE WORK AND MANUAL TRAINING. 

Constructive work has had a marvelous growth in our 
schools the last year, having wisely and intensely interested 
both teachers and pupils. This shows that it has a sound prin- 
ciple beneath it and that it is a **fad*' only when exaggerated 
beyond its due limits. Within these limits it will serve to de- 



136 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

velop interest, to make skilful fingers, to correct abstract by 
concrete knowledge, to render a community artistic not only in 
feeling but in power. The best artistic ideals should guide 
creation, it being always found in the course of time that the 
trulv beautiful is also useful and consonant with the laws of 
nature. 

I believe that wide discretion should be given to principals 
and teachers in selecting forms of constructive work, that the 
creative power of children may develop along various fruitful 
lines. But teachers should remember that only a thorough 
knowledge on their own part of the methods of artistic con- 
struction can lead to the best results. Not all teachers are 
artists. It is of little use to force this work upon schools whose 
teachers possess neither the skill nor the desire to carry it on. 
If there is the desire, however, the skill may be in a degree 
attained, especially where the art of drawing, now essential for 
teachers, has been thoroughly pursued. 

The materials to be used must be regarded from the two 
standpoints of adaptability and economy. Many teachers pre- 
fer, for the first two or three grades, chiefly paper; others find 
that a boy of six can, with a fine saw, work in soft wood with 
accuracy and profit. One teacher of high standing favors wire- 
work tor a year; others would use clay or sand. But paper and 
wood, because of their adaptability and cheapness, are for the 
great mass of work to be preferred to other materials. The 
number of tools used will increase, with advancing knowledge, 
from scissors to the rack of the carpenter's bench. Both ma- 
terials and tools should be used with discretion and care. The 
public is willing to educate, but not to educate wastefully. 

The specialized constructive work of the seventh and eighth 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 1 37 

grades, called ** manual training," has had a marked develop- 
ment this year. The number of shops has increased from 23 to 
34 ; the number of schools sending boys, from 123 to 168 ; the 
number of boys instructed, as reported by the Supervisor of 
Manual Training, from (about) 8,000 to (about) 15,000. 

**It is not intended, by means of manual training, to pro- 
duce mechanics, artisans, hewers of wood, or workmen in iron, 
etc., but thoughtful men and women, with clear vision and 
understanding hearts, who shall enjoy the distinction of discov- 
ering lessons in trees and hearing sermons in stones, and com- 
muning with the visible forms of nature." — [District Superin- 
tendent Kirk.] 

THE HOUSEHOLD ARTS. 

The Department of Household Arts was intended to ac- 
complish for girls what that of manual training does for boys. 
The teaching has great practical utility. More important than 
this, it, like manual training, developes constructive mentality 
and power, inventiveness and a many-sided growth of mind. 
Twenty-five thousand dollars was last year appropriated by the 
Board for this species of instruction. The schools have been 
largely attended, the work eagerly done. The effect upon home 
life is reported to be most beneficent. I recommend that the 
department be continued. It will justify itself even if — which 
is desirable and perfectly justified by theory — forms of manual 
training proper should, by and by, be made available for girls. 

Number of schools for sewing 10 

Number of schools for cooking 10 

Number of teachers in cooking 10 

Number of teachers in sewing 10 

Number of schools sending pupils 145 

Number of pupils in sewing 5,000 

Number of pupils in cooking 5,000 

The work in cooking has been peculiarly profitable. It is 



138 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

easy for teachers with little training in the scientific part of the 
work to pause with the cooking only, making little application 
of the underlying principles. Much more valuable is the teach- 
ing which establishes fundamental scientific principles by ex^ 
periment and then bases practical applications in cooking upon 
them. This employs the rational memory, not merely the ar- 
bitrary or local memory. It would be well if teachers of cook- 
ing could each have two or more years of training in some in- 
stitution like Pratt or Drexel. Cooking is a laboratory exercise 
and as such should come to be of great service. As so large a 
proportion of pupils leave school after passing the fifth and 
sixth grades, cooking might with profit be carried down to- 
those grades. The work in sewing can also be done in. the 
lower grades. It could be begun in the second grade and con- 
tinued until the fifth or later. In most of the large cities of the 
United States sewing is taught in the lower grades. Except in 
its more difficult applications, it is rather too simple a matter to 
engage the seventh and eighth grade pupils. Any sort of sew- 
ing which tries the eyes or has little practical use should be 
rigidly excluded. No embroidery or fancy sewing should be 
permitted. 

THE EVENING SCHOOLS. 

The evening schools had a prosperous and successful term. 
Following* are the statistics : 

1897-98. 1898-99. 

Number of elementary evening schools 34 37 

Number of high evening schools 7 7 

Number of evenings in session 96 108 

Number of teachers 280 289 

Number of pupils enrolled in elementary schools 7,898 8,887 

Number of pupils enrolled in high schools 2,036 2,249 

Total number enrolled 9,934 11.136 

Total average attendance 4,325 

Total cost of maintenance $81,674 73 $89,537 78 

Average cost per pupil enrolled 8 22 8 04 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT I39 

I am impressed that the evening schools might be made to 
afford better service and satisfaction, and therefore respectfully 
submit the following suggestions concerning their organization 
and management. These recommendations are based upon the 
reports of the principals of evening schools submitted by them 
at an important conference held in the Board room on Satur- 
day, April 8, 1899. 

The evening school year should consist of two terms of ten 
weeks each, the first term to open about the middle of October 
and close the Friday before Christmas; the second term to 
begin the second week in January and close the middle of 
March. Holidays during the evening school period should be 
the same as for day schools. 

The elementary evening schools should follow the day 
school course of study as a basis with large liberty to the prin- 
cipals to add and intersperse related matter. Stress should be 
placed on English and the use of the English language. The 
use of the assembly hall at each school should be permitted for 
one lecture per week. 

Evening high schools should take the day high school 
course as a basis with large liberty to principals to add and in- 
tersperse related matter. Stress should be placed on English 
and the use of the English language. Permit each evening 
high school the use of the assembly hall for one lecture per 
week. 

The hours of session should be from 7 to 9 o'clock ;• pro- 
vided, that for good and sufficient reasons and with the approval 
of the district superintendent they may be modified in any par- 
ticular school. 

For pupils in the elementary evening schools all material — 
including stationery, ink, crayon, pencils, pens, etc. — should be 



140 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

pro\'ided free, such books to be in the custody and care of the 
evening school principal, a record of all such books being kept 
by him, and an inventory submitted at the close of the evening 
school year. The Board should furnish plenty of supplemen- 
tary reading matter, mainly biographical, historical and geo- 
graphical in nature. 

High school pupils should be required to provide their own 
books and material. 

Day school pupils should not be admitted to the evening 
schools. Registration cards should not be issued to pupils or 
pupils be permanently enrolled until they have been in attend- 
ance at least ten evenings within three weeks. An attendance 
of at least three evenings per week should be required to con- 
stitute membership for such week. 

Each teacher should enter in the class-book the name of 
every pupil sent to his room. At the end of each ten weeks 
certificates of attendance should be issued to all pupils who have 
been present at lea'st thirty evenings. 

No principal or teacher should be appointed without the 
proper certificate. 

So far as possible, the principal for an evening school 
should be the day school principal, at the same building, or a 
day school teacher of the same school holding a principal's 
certificate. 

Teachers should be selected, as far as possible, from the 
list of holders of Chicago certificates who are waiting for day 
school positions, only those to be selected who give evidence 
that they are experienced and skilful. 

Non-certificated teachers who re-apply for positions this 
year should be given an examination after September 15, 1900 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 141 

that they may secure certificates and bring themselves under 
the law. No other examination for evening school teachers 
need be held this year. 

The evening schools in each district should be, as last year, 
under the supervision of the district superintendents. 

At the beginning of an evening school term no room should 
be opened with fewer than thirty-five pupils. After the open- 
ing of the term no room should be opened while there are 
vacant seats in any room of like grade in the school. 

In justification of the view that the principal of an evening 
school ought, whenever possible, to be the same person as the 
day school principal, I submit a statement which has reached 
me concerning the management of a large evening school in 
our system and the additional work imposed by it upon the 
teachers in the day school. The attempt to maintain a separate 
institution in the same premises and using the same books, 
fixtures, etc., as the regular day school, but under separate 
management, adds materially to the difficulty of carrying on 
the latter. With one and the same principal for both the 
difficulty is reduced to a minimum. 

* * We find it impossible to arrange for the use of the black- 
board space without interference. There has been an under- 
standing with the principal of the evening school to the effect 
that the blackboard on the front wall would be reserved for his 
use. This we have invariably left, or its equivalent if it ap- 
peared that the evening teacher m a particular room preferred 
space elsewhere. Yet in certain rooms claim is made regii-'. 
larly, in others occasionally, to the entire blackboard surface, 
and exercises left on the board by the regular teacher for some 
particular purpose are wholly or partially destroyed. 

**Work requiring great care in its preparation and contain- 
ing the plainly expressed request for its preservation is oblit- 
erated wholly or in part, and this repeatedly. Even the pro- 
gramme is not respected and it has been a common thing to 
find it^— the table of weather records and similar writings — 



142 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

erased, and the space written over with the exercises of the 
evening school classes. 

* * An order of the Board of Education directs that all fund 
books and supplementary readers belonging to the school be 
put at the disposal of the evening school principal. At the 
opening of the session, in accordance with a requisition pre- 
sented by him, a supply of books of various kinds was placed 
in each room, and a certain drawer of the bookcase was made 
ready to receive them and the other property of the evening 
school teacher. Nevertheless, fund books and supplementary 
readers have been repeatedly taken from bookcases without 
notice to regular teachers or principal and, without any regard 
to the purpose for which they were collected there, have been 
carried to other parts of the building and returned in part only, 
or not at all. In more than one instance the regular teacher 
has preferred to abandon the use of certain books rather than 
be subjected to the delay and annoyance caused by having to 
hunt them up where left by the evening school teacher. 

**The loss of books resulting from the division of respon- 
sibility for their safekeeping is considerable. One teacher 
found the supply of Speer*s Arithmetics, though collected from 
pupils each day and locked up in the bookcase, constantly 
dwindling. We presently learned that the evening school 
teacher in that room had been allowing pupils to take copies 
home. When a round-up was made some time later, eleven 
copies were gone. The evening school people disclaimed all 
accountability, and this is their usual practice in such cases. 

* When new and choice sets of supplementary readers come 
to us they are commonly seized upon and put into use by even- 
ing school teachers, not because they are particularly adapted 
to the needs of their classes, but because new books with new 
pictures help to interest pupils and make the work go more 
smoothly. 

* *The principal and teachers of the evening school are apt 
to put the whole burden of caring for property and preserving 
some semblance of cleanliness and order about the school rooms 
upon the day force. Their writing is left on blackboards, or, if 
an attempt is made at clearing them, the eraser is a smear of 
chalk dust. The regular teachers in many rooms find a thor- 
ough cleaning of their blackboards necessary before beginning 
the work of the day. 

** Periodically there has to be a house cleaning to remove 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 1 43 

ink stains from desk tops, etc. , and daily there must be a clear- 
ing out from desks of waste paper, scraps of tobacco and frag- 
ments of food of various kinds. 

**Any attempt at decoration by putting up pupils' drawings 
and other work is hazardous, because work so posted is exposed 
to almost certain mutilation and destruction. Whatever exhibit 
of this sort teachers wish to make while the evening schools are 
in session, must be taken down daily at the close of school and 
put away. The use of house plants for the sake of brightening 
the rooms has been abandoned because of the liability of their 
being torn to pieces or pulled up by the roots. 

* *There is no consideration for the particular requirements 
of the regular teachers in the arrangement of the evening 
school force. In room No. i a first grade teacher from a pri- 
vate school in the neighborhood has charge. Her practice is 
to have her pupils en masse use the blackboards for writing 
exercises. Much of the eighth grade work, especially in His- 
tory, is done by use of topical outlines prepared by teacher and 
copied by pupils in note books. The undisturbed use of black- 
boards is therefore very desirable, but it is denied the regular 
teacher of this room. Room No. 3 is the home of our seventh 
grade Latin division. The teacher has been anxious to instruct 
her pupils concerning Roman architecture, religion, home life, 
etc. , by using pictures, constructive work, etc. In the evening 
this room is occupied by a large division with two teachers, or 
a teacher and an assistant. As the regular teacher presumed 
to occupy one drawer of the bookcase, leaving only one for the 
evening teacher, her belongings were taken out and left piled 
upon the table in damaged condition, several valuable pictures 
of Roman subjects being so torn as to render them useless. At 
other times during the year there has been destruction of prop- 
erty as needless and as lawless as that described. The crowd- 
ing of two schools into one room made it necessary to turn over 
the dressing room to their use and the regular teacher was left 
with scant storage room for necessary material. Her plans of 
using pictures, constructive work, etc., in connection with Latin 
and other subjects had to be abandoned. 

**In each of these cases arrangements might easily have 
been made for less interference with the work of the day 
schools, but the evening principal has not seen fit to make them 
in spite of repeated suggestions to that effect. " 



144 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



THE JOHN WORTHY SCHOOL. 



As a detailed report of the methods, course of study, shop- 
work, etc. , of this school was given last year, only a summary 
of statistics is presented this year. - 

It is believed that the establishment in the city of the new 
juvenile court will do much good in keeping from the John 
Worthy School certain boys who could be more beneficially 
dealt with by other means. Already some improvement in this 
direction has been noted. 

Membership June 30, 1898 122 

Commitments from July 1, 1898, to June 30, 1899, inclusive 725 

Enrollment 847 

Released , 720 

Membership June 30, 1899 127 

Average membership 113 

Average length of time of each pupil (school days) 40 

Of the 847 commitments 68 were repeaters (some being sent back for 
the second, third or fourth time), so that 779 different boys were enrolled. 

COMPULSORY EDUCATION AND THE PROPOSED PARENTAL SCHOOL. 

The total number of investigations made by the Compul- 
sory Education Department was 17,195. Of these 9,027 were 
returned to the public schools, 3, 944 were found to be truants, 
241 are declared to be habitual truants and 113 incorrigibles 
fit only for a parental school. 

The act of the Illinois Legislature, taking effect July i, 
1899, by which a parental school must be established in 
Chicago within two years, appears to me to mark a momentous 
advance in the social evolution of our city. The Board of Ed- 
ucation must build, furnish and maintain such school and pre- 
scribe courses of study therefor. Truant children under four- 
teen, of school age, may be committed to the school for varying 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 145 

periods. Children may be released on parole. Incorrigibles 
may be sent to a reform school. No such school can be erected 
near a penal institution. 

The Massachusetts law requires the maintenance of a 
truant school by each county, **either separately or conjointly 
with the commissioners of other counties." New York City 
and Brooklyn have maintained such schools for some years. 

The course of study in such a school should have much 
nature study and constructive work, abundant movement for 
these young, restless bodies, in which the unsocial instincts sur- 
vive with unusual strength. I firmly believe that proper direc- 
tion of energy will render valuable citizens nearly all those 
hitherto classed as incorrigible truants. 

Sixteen weeks is the period of compulsory attendance now 
required by our State law. Four of these weeks have been 
added within two years. Massachusetts requires an attendance 
of thirty-two weeks. A similar law, or compulsory attendance 
as many weeks as school is taught in the district, should be our 
aim. In England, under a thoroughly enforced compulsory 
attendance law, youthful criminality has decreased fifty per 
cent. 

VACATION SCHOOLS. 

One of the most beneficent and wisely conducted charities 
of the city are the vacation schools. They take children of the 
congested districts from the hot, dirty streets and crowded 
houses to spacious and airy rooms, where their emotions have 
vent in music, their minds are delighted and instructed by 
nature study and constructive work and their bodies developed 
by careful gymnastics. Excursions to the parks, to the country, 
to swimming schools on the lake, give them glimpses of new 



146 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

and larger environment, at the present a pure happiness, for 
the future a beckoning vista. 

The Board of Education has for two years granted to these 
schools the use of buildings and equipment, the women's clubs 
of the city providing for the other expenses. Four schools have 
been open during this summer for six weeks with an attendance 
of 1,600, 60 per cent being boys. 

An act of the last Legislature provides that in cities having 
a population exceeding one hundred thousand the Board of 
Education may establish and maintain vacation schools and 
playgrounds under such rules as it shall prescribe. I earnestly 
hope that ample funds may make it possible for the Board itself 
hereafter to assume this work and to carry on the same com- 
pletely under its own auspices. 

THE HIGH SCHOOLS. 

A wider differentiation of the high schools is very greatly 
needed and would be the key to many problems. The present 
courses are almost entirely professional and are supplying rela- 
tively too many graduates with professional aims. Sixty per 
cent of the graduates intend to become teachers, twenty-five 
per cent enter college. Chicago is a commercial and manu- 
facturing city, yet very small provision is made for the proper 
secondary training of our youth, ninety-five per cent of whom 
must follow these occupations. Of fourteen high schools, one 
is technical — the English High and Manual Training — thirteen 
are professional. Justice and wisdom would dictate an order 
something like the reverse of this. There are in the city 60,000 
boys between the ages of fourteen and eighteen. Of these 
about 2,500 are in the high schools acquiring a professional 
education. The others are untrained as far as the city goes for 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 147 

their work in life. Educational opinion upon this question has 
within the last few years rapidly crystalized, and is now practi- 
cally unanimous. At a meeting of the North Central Associa- 
tion of Colleges and Secondary Schools in this city in March 
last, but a single vote opposed the introduction of commercial 
courses into secondary schools. The George Rowland Club, 
composed of one hundred male principals of Chicago schools, 
recommended to the Educational Commission the ''establish- 
ment of commercial courses in our high schools, and of a greater 
number of high and manual training schools. " A similar reso- 
lution urging commercial courses passed the High School 
Council unanimously. 

The example of foreign nations in this respect is well 
known. Men trained in the commercial and technical schools 
of Germany during the last twenty years are pushing England 
hard in the markets of the world. England in self defence has 
been driven to the establishment of similar schools. The 
French artisan has for centuries been protected and trained by 
his government. These foreign workmen are constantly dis- 
placing our untrained youth in shop and store. If we wish to 
hold our own in the world's battle of commerce, we must have 
well trained armies of skilled artisans and business men. 

The ideas of Anjerican education have led to an exagger- 
ated exaltation of professional life and an insufficient prepara- 
tion for commerce and manufactures. Bv the constructive 
work the manual training and the household arts department of 
our elementary schools we are placing a truer value upon hand 
work and correlating it aright with brain work. 

But this encouragement to artistic creation in the elemen- 
tary schools should have its corresponding development in the 



148 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

secondary schools. Otherwise the instruction is but half fin- 
ished and leaves our children but half trained, and their work 
through life will show this lack of thorough education. 

Seventy per cent of the pupils in the high schools are 
girls. We are educating our girls better than our boys, because 
we do not give our boys the opportunity to be trained for the 
occupations they must follow. Americans are rightly generous 
to women, but such partiality in this instance will produce an 
ill-balanced relation. Our boys deserve as careful a training at 
our hands as our girls. 

INDUSTRIAL ARTS. 

Some will object to the cost of this enlargement of second- 
ary schools, but I believe that the people will cheerfully supply 
all the money needed for the thorough education of their chil- 
dren. The establishment of commercial schools and courses 
would cost no more than so many schools of the usual type. 
The *' plants" of technical schools are more costly. Private 
generosity may aid the city by the presentation of the needed 
buildings and their equipment, as the sagacity of private citi- 
zens has already in part provided for the city by the establish- 
ment and endowment of some admirable technical schools. In 
any case, whether through private generosity or public action, 
the public, if it clearly sees the needs of these schools, will 
provide for them. 

The establishment of these thorough and impartial second- 
ary schools will have the most beneficent effect upon the city. 
They will educate a class of trained artisans who can compete 
with their fellows throughout the world, of business men who 
will understand the laws and science of commerce, of men of 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 149 

both classes who will be prepared to solve successfully the in' 
dustrial problems that press daily upon us. 

THE NORMAL SCHOOL. 

By the vote of the Board of Education June 28, 1899, the 
course of study of the Normal School was increased from one 
to two years. This is a very important step in advancing the 
standard of the teachers' attainments. As the work committed 
by the community to the teacher is yearly more exacting, so 
must the teachers* preparation be more thorough. New sub- 
jects must be mastered, as well as the best methods of impart- 
ing a knowledge of those subjects to children. Many members 
of other professions, law, medicine, theology, pursue studies in 
addition to the high school course of from four to six and even 
more years before beginning their practice. 

The first year of the added course will be largely academic, 
with a special emphasis upon the science and literature of the 
high school curriculum and the adaptation of the knowledge 
there gained to younger minds. The second year will be peda- 
gogical and have direct reference to the studies of the elemen- 
tary schools. 

The Normal Practice School, costing $110,000, with an 
assembly hall and manual training shop, is nearly finished and 
has been occupied since May. It will greatly aid the efficiency 
of the school. 

1897-98. 1898-99. 

Number of teachers 21 27 

Total enrollment 440 573 

Average daily membership 389. 7 472.8 

Average daily attendance 374.1 453.5 

Number of graduates 345 435 

Total expenses $64,107.38 $66,903.97 



150 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

PUBLIC SCHOOL LECTURES. 

The Ryder lectures were omitted this year, that the fund 
might accumulate. 

The following list of lectures was delivered through the 
co-operation of the Chicago Record and the Board of Education, 
the Board giving the use of the school assembly halls, the 
Record paying other expenses: 

The total attendance at the lectures was about 40,000. 
Thirty-seven were illustrated with stereoptican slides. 

February 3 — 

Lake View High School — **The Rivalry Between Prussia 
and Austria for Supremacy Within Germany," by Pro- 
fessor W. L. Burnap, Lake Forest University. 

Robert Morris School — ** Applied Bacteriology" (illus- 
trated), by Dr. Adolph Gehrmann. 

McCosh School— **Child Growth," by Bayard Holmes. 

George W. Curtis School — **Evolution of Industry," by 
Clarence S. Darrow. 

Horace Mann School — **The Poetry of Tennyson," by Pro- 
fessor C. W. Pearson, Northwestern University. 

Bismarck School — **War Stories of Land and Sea" (illus- 
trated), by Henry Barrett Chamberlin. 

Andersen School — ** Tuberculosis," by Dr. W. A. Evans. 

Medill High School— **A Trip to Hawaii" (illustrated), by 
Colonel Francis W. Parker. 

Hammond School — ** Purposes and Work of the Sanitary 
District of Chicago" (illustrated), by Isham Randolph. 

February 10 — 

Lake View High School — **Bismarck and the Founding of 
the German Empire," by Professor W. L. Burnap, 
Lake Forest University. 

Robert Morris School — ^^Consumption; Its Prevalence, 
Communicability and Prevention," by Dr. R. H. Bab- 
cock. 

McCosh School — **The Cost of Preventible Diseases," by 
Dr. Bayard Holmes. 

Horace Mann School — ''Tuberculosis." by Dr. G. Frank 
Butler. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 151 

Bismarck School — **The Poetry of Browning, " by Prof essor 
C. W. Pearson, Northwestern University. 

Anderson School — Hygiene of Infancy and Childhood; 
The Care and Feeding of Infants and Children," by 
Dr. Alfred C. Cotton. 

Medill High School— '^Tuberculosis," by Dr. W. A. Evans. 

Hammond School — **A Trip to Hawaii" (illustrated), by 
Colonel Francis W. Parker. 

Brentano School — **War Stories of Land and Sea" (illus- 
trated), by Henry Barrett Chamberlin. 

Adams School — **Some Roman Legends and Their Les- 
sons," by Professor Louis Stuart, Lake Forest Univer- 
sity. 
February 17 — 

Lake View High School — **The Exploits of Chevelier 
Henri de Tonti; An Episode in the Early History of 
Illinois (illustrated), by Henry E. Legler, Milwaukee, 
Wis. 

Robert Morris School — ** William Morris and the Great 
Gothic" (illustrated), by Miss Josephine C. Locke. 

McCosh School — **War Stories of Land and Sea" (illus- 
trated), by Henry Barrett Chamberlin. 

George W. Curtis School — **Animal Cells and a Commun- 
ity; An Allegory" (illustrated), by Dr. W. T. Echley. 

Horace Mann School — ** Practical Points about Writing 
English," by Professor J. Scott Clark, Northwestern 
University. 

Bismarck School — **Food and Dietetics, " by Dr. Otto Folin. 

Andersen School — **Napolieon and the French Empire" 
(illustrated), by Professor Edouard Baillot, Northwest- 
ern University. 

Medill High School — **Applied Bacteriology" (illustrated), 
by Dr. Adolph Gehrmann. 

Hammond School — **The Cost of Preventable Diseases," 
by Dr. Bayard Holmes. 

Brentano School — *'The Poetry of Tennyson, " by Professor 
C. W. Pearson, Northwestern University. 

Adams School — **Eleazar Williams, the Lost Dauphin of 
France; His Forerunners and Himself," by W. W. 
Wight, Milwaukee, Wis. 
February 24 — 

Lake View High School — **William Morris" (illustrated), 
by Miss Sabra L. Sargent, Lake Forest University. 



152 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

Robert Morris School — **War Stories of Land and Sea" 
(illustrated), by Henry Barrett Chamberliu. 

McCosh School — ** Applied Bacteriology" (illustrated), by 
Dr. Adolph Gehrmann. 

George W. Curtis School— **Child Growth, "by Dr. Bayard 
Holmes. 

Horace Mann School — • *The Century's Progress in Biology" 
(illustrated), by Professor W. A. Loey, Northwestern 
University. 

Bismarck School — **Napoleon and the First Empire" (illus- 
trated), by Professor Edouard Baillot, Northwestern 
University. 

Andersen School — **Practical Points About Writing Eng- 
lish," by Professor J. Scott Clark, Northwestern Uni- 
versity. 

Medill High School — **Rudyard Kipling and His Works," 
by Professor Walter R. Bridgman, Lake Forest Uni- 
versity. 

Hammond School — ** Hygiene of Infancy and Childhood," 
by Dr. A. C. Cotton. 

Brentano School — **Industrial Evolution," by Clarence S. 
Darrow. 

Adams School — **Democratic Architecture" (illustrated), 
by Miss Josephine C. Locke. 
March 3 — 

Lake View High School— **A Trip to Hawaii" (illustrated), 
by Colonel F. • W. Parker. 

Robert Morris School — -^Food, Digestion and Assimilation 
and Their Relations to Life," by Dr. J. A. Wesner. 

McCosh School — **Christian and Imperial Rome," by Miss 
Josephine C. Locke. 

George W. Curtis School — 'Turposes and Work of the Sani- 
tary District of Chicago" (illustrated), by Isham Ran- 
dolph. 

Horace Mann School — '*Child Growth," by Dr. Bayard 
Holmes. 

Bismarck School — "Practical Points About Writing Eng- 
lish, "by Professor J. Scott Clark, Northwestern Uni- 
versity. 

Andersen School — "Huxley, Darwin and Pasteur, " by Pro- 
fessor W. A. Loey, Northwestern University. 

Medill High School— ** War Stories of Land and Sea" 
(illustrated), by Henry Barrett Chamberlin. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 1 53 

Hammond School — * 'Bacteria and Disease" (illustrated), by 
Dr. F. Eldredge Wynekoop. 

Brentano School — **The French Revolution" (illustrated), 
by Professor Edouard Baillot, Northwestern Univer- 
sity. 

Adams School — '^Consumption: Its Prevalence, Communi- 
cability and Prevention," by Dr. R. H. Babcock. 

March lo — 

Lake View Hig^h School — * 'Sympathy," by Dr. Walter 
Smith, Lake Forest University. 

Robert Morris School — "Bismarck," by Dr. E. Benjamin 
Andrews. 

McCosh School — "The Ascent of Mount Rainer" (illus- 
trated), by Professor Charles Hill, Northwestern Uni- 
versity. 

George W. Curtis School — "War Stories of Land and Sea" 
(illustrated), by Henry Barrett Chamberlin. 

Horace Mann School — "The Cost of Preventible Diseases," 
by Dr. Bayard Holmes. 

Bismarck School — "A Trip to Hawaii" (illustrated), by 
Colonel Francis W. Parker. 

Andersen School — "Bacteria and Disease" (illustrated), by 
Dr. E. F. Wynekoop, 
. Medill High School — "Hygiene of Infancy and Childhood," 
by Dr. Alfred C. Cotton. 

Hammond School — "Imperial and Christian Rome" (illus- 
trated), by Miss Josephine C. Locke. 

Brentano School — "Food, Digestion, Assimilation and 
Their Relations to Life," by Dr. J. A. Wesener. 

Adams School— "The Poetry of the Bible," by Dr. M. 
Bross Thomas, Northwestern University. 

March 17 — 

Lake View High School — "War Stories of Land and Sea " 
(illustrated), by Henry Barrett Chamberlin. 

Robert Morris School — "Purposes and Work of the Sani- 
tary District of Chicago" (illustrated), by Isham 
Randolph. 

Horace Mann School — "The Message of Greece to 
America " (illustrated), by Miss Josephine C. Locke. 

Bismarck School — "Bacteria and Disease" (illustrated), 
by Dr. F. E. Wynekoop. 



154 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

Andersen School — ** Alexander Hamilton and His Times, ''^ 
by Professor James A. James, Northwestern Uni- 
versity. 

Medill Hi^h School — **The Poets of Nature from a 
Naturalist's Standpoint,*' by Professor James G. Need- 
ham, Lake Forest University. 

Brentano School — **The English Language," by Professor 
C. W. Pearson, Northwestern University. 

McCosh School — ** The French Revolution" (illustrated), 
by Professor Edouard Baillot, Northwestern Uni- 
versity. 

Adams School — **The Moon" (illustrated), by Professor 
Malcolm McNeill, Lake Forest University. 
March 23 — 

Hammond School — * * War Stories of Land and Sea " (illus- 
trated), by Henry Barrett Chamberlin. 
March 24 — 

Adams School — **War Stories of Land and Sea" (illus- 
trated), by Henry Barrett Chamberlin. 
March 31 — 

McCosh School — ** War Stories of Land and Sea" (illus- 
trated), by Henry Barrett Chamberlin. 

THE EDUCATIONAL COMMISSION. 

One of the most important educational events of the year 
has been the Report of the Educational Commission of the City 
of Chicago, published in December, 1898. This Commission 
was authorized by the City Council, December, 1897; appointed 
by the Mayor, January, 1898; approved by the Board of Edu- 
cation May, 1898. The Commission was composed of eleven 
members; three members of the City Council, two members 
and two ex-members of the Board of Education, the others 
private citizens. Correspondence was carried on with fifty 
prominent educators and several bodies of teachers. 

The report covers a wide field in educational matters, and 
has attracted many favorable comments, a few of which are 
subjoined: 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 1 55 

President David Starr Jordan, of the Leland Stanford, 
Jr., University — **I find myself in entire agreement with the 
spirit of the suggestions, and I believe that on such a basis it 
should be possible to bring the public schools of a large city to 
the highest grade of efficiency. " 

President Daniel C. Oilman, of the John Hopkins Uni- 
versity — * * It seems to me that the report is admirable. In 
minor points there might be slight differences of opinion, but 
in the main the plans proposed seem to me surprisingly good. " 

Professor Nicholas Murray Butler, Columbia Univer- 
sity, editor of the Educational Review — * * I can scarcely restrain 
my enthusiasm at the almost ideal nature of your report as it 
is outlined. The thoroughgoing way in which you have formu- 
lated the best ideas in city school administration is sure to 
prove of great benefit not only to Chicago but to many other 
cities of the countr)^ " 

Again, in the review of the educational progress of the 
year at the Los Angeles session of the National Educational 
Association, Mr. Butler said : 

**In my judgment the report of the Educational Commis- 
sion of the City of Chicago is the most exhaustive and the most 
authoritative contribution that has been made to the literature 
of city school administration, and is the one quite indispensable 
book of reference on the subject. I regard its conclusions and 
recommendations as almost unassailable, whether viewed from 
the standpoint of theory or from that of practice. It is a model 
of painstaking study and of scientific method.'* 

The bill appended to the report was rejected by the Legis- 
lature largely through misapprehensions touching its real pur- 
port. It was thought among other things to jeopardize teachers' 
tenure. 

The tenure of office of good teachers cannot be made too 
firm, and if any additional safeguards are needed they should 
be embodied in law. The present rule of the Board (Section 
55) declares that at the annual election **all special teachers, 
all principals and other teachers not appearing to have been 



156 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

notified of unsatisfactory work during the preceding year, shall 
be declared elected for the ensuing year." The pension law 
provides that no teacher shall be discharged except upon 
written charges and trial by the Board. 

PROFESSIONAL IMPROVEMENT. 

A number of organizations exist among the teachers of the 
public schools for mutual benefit and improvement. Some of 
these are partly social and only partly professional. Some 
admit one sex only, some both. It is natural that these organi- 
zations should increase in numbers as the varied interests of the 
six thousand teachers of the city are specialized. These socie- 
ties crystalize opinion, voice general and special views, draw 
closer the professional bond, advance the professional standard. 

The district superintendents report frequent meetings of 
principals for consultation and study upon administrative work. 

A very important organization, in some respects unique in 
the history of American schools, is the Council System, organ- 
ized a year ago, which has in part won the recognition of the 
Board. This system is composed of a school council, the prin- 
cipal and teachers of each school ; a district council, the super- 
intendent of the district, the principal and one teacher from 
each school ; a high school council of the same character as the 
district council ; and a central council, composed of all the 
superintendents, supervisors and delegates from the high and 
district councils. 

The possibilities of this organization for favorably influenc- 
ing school work are very great. Acceptance of any decision, 
judgment or advice emanating from the organization is purely 
voluntary. The influence of any action by any of the councils 
depends upon the degree in which, by its intrinsic and obvious 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 1 57 

value, it commends itself to the judgment of those concerned. 
•The organization makes practicable and easy the consideration 
an(J discussion of important questions on the theory and prac- 
tice of teaching, and on other matters in which teachers are 
interested. Every teacher is thus made a student of these 
problems. None can escape giving them some thought, and 
each has an opportunity for the expression of his thoughts in a 
way to stimulate many. 

It would seem to me to be a marked improvement in 
this excellent organization were the procedure so changed 
as to permit principals to deliberate wholly by themselves 
and teachers wholly by themselves, like the Senate and 
House of Representatives in Congress, each side acting inde- 
pendently till it had matured its measure, which should then 
be sent to the other side for concurrence or modification. 
In case of dissident conclusions on the two sides a conference 
committee could be used as in Congress. A plan like this 
would allow both principals and teachers to debate and express 
themselves w^th a freedom too often lacking under the present 
system, and would thus insure immense weight to any resolu- 
tion, recommendation or advice finally issuing from the Council. 

A very large proportion of the teachers engage constantly 
in study calculated to improve them in their work. Many 
attend the afternoon and evening classes offered by the Univer- 
sity of Chicago ; others take university extension courses held 
in different parts of the city; still others gather in groups and 
study without instructors, and many study alone. This pro- 
fessional study is rapidly increasing. 

In addition to the above exhibit, and partially in explana- 
tion of the same, I beg to submit the following valuable reports 



158 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

handed me by my esteemed colleagues in the work of superin- 
tendence and supervision. To avoid unnecessary repetition upon 
subjects treated by two or more superintendents, a number of 
observations originally contained in these reports, have been, 
with slight change, incorporated in the preceding paragraphs. 
The reports thus drawn upon I have found extremely rich in 
all sorts of pedagogical suggestions, theoretical and practical. 

Respectfully submitted, 

E. Benjamin Andrews, 

Superintendent of Schools. 



REPORT OF THE ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENT IN CHARGE 

OF THE HIGH SCHOOLS. 

Dr. E. Baijamin Andrews^ Superintendent of Schools : 

In accordance with your directions, I have the honor to 
submit my eighth annual report, as Assistant Superintendent 
in charge of the High Schools, for the year ending June 23, 
1899. 

GENERAL RESUME. 

The year just closed has been one of steady advancement, 
uninterrupted by any occurrence to mar the general prosperity. 
The principals have been attentive to duty, the teachers have 
been industrious and loyal, and the pupils, in a large measure, 
have shown an appreciation of the advantages afforded them. 
There have been no deaths and little sickness among the 
teachers. Fewer substitutes have been employed and at shorter 
intervals than usual. 

Every effort has been put forth to limit the influence of the 
most disturbing element in the High Schools, viz : the sizes of 
the classes. While there are a few classes in such studies as 
advanced Greek, advanced German, advanced French, Geology 
and Astronomy, which obtain fewer pupils than the average 
number which we endeavor to maintain, there are many in 
Algebra, Elementary German, Physical Geography, Rhetoric 
and Geometry, with so large a number of pupils as to prevent 
the best instruction. Pupils entering the High School need 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 159 

and have a right to expect individual assistance. The subjects 
of study being fewer, the lessons are necessarily longer and 
require concentrated attention ; they are in some respects new ; 
methods of instruction are different ; the whole environment of 
the pupil is in contrast with his former experience. For these 
and other reasons the classes of the first year should not con- 
tain more than twenty -five or thirty pupils each. For lack of 
teachers and rooms we are compelled to organize these classes 
with fifty and sometimes sixty pupils, while the fourth-year 
classes, which could be reasonably well taught though number- 
ing forty or fifty pupils each, often contain but twenty or thirty. 
In this way the average of thirty-five, which our regulations 
-call for, is maintained, but to the great detriment of first-ytar 
pupils. 

At the close of September there were 9,567 pupils in all 
the high schools and 257 teachers (not including principals, 
teachers of drawing, physical culture or music), which gives an 
average of thirty- seven pupils to each teacher. There is no 
force, however, to these statistics, because of the very wide 
range of numbers in the organization of the different classes. 
Were the average reduced to twenty-five there would still be 
classes containing forty or more pupils, while such an average 
to each teacher would require the employment of 125 more 
teachers, or one-third more than are at present employed. 

Since there were 9,567 pupils at the end of September, and 
7,845 at the end of June, or a loss of 1,722, which, with the 
average of twenty-five pupils to a class, would require the em- 
ployment of sixty-nine teachers, I would earnestly recommend 
that during the early part of the year, while the classes are so 
large, some arrangements be made whereby substitute or 
student teachers may be employed at the salaries given to the 
experienced teachers for the first year. This would prevent the 
classes being too large, make the instruction more effective, and, 
I believe, materially lessen the per cent of failures and of those 
who fall out by the way. 

PROGRAMME OF STUDY. 

While the programme of study in the high schools has been 
changed from time to time during the last ten years, and each 
time for the better, I earnestly suggest still further modifica- 
tions to meet the varying plans and varied talents of the just 
and reasonable demands of the public. 



l6o PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



To entitle pupik to diplomas there should perhaps be cer- 
tain constants in the programme of studies, but much wisdom 
should be displayed in the determination of these constants. 
All will admit that the study of the English language and its 
literature should be pursued by all, but whether algebra, plane 
geometry, a foreign language, a year of history, and some one 
science, or any of these, should be required of all is open to 
question. 

Without debating this question at length, I urgently recom- 
mend that opportunity for the study of history be given in each 
year of the course, and that it be distributed in accordance with 
the suggestions of the American Historical Association, ap- 
proved in their essence by the teachers of history in our High 
Schools. For the first year, ancient history, Grecian and Roman, 
including a brief study of the history of eastern nations; second 
year, mediaeval and modern; third year, English; and fourth 
year, American history and civics. I also advocate some modi- 
fications of the Course in English to make it more attractive, 
effective and logical. Very few other changes are needed. 

The nomenclature which should prevail is contained in the 
report of the Committee on ** College Entrance Requirements,*' 
recently presented to the National Educational Association. 

The programme of study should refer to all the subjects 
offered by the school, the curriculum to the special studies each 
pupil may be pursuing and the course of study to the quantity 
and quality of the work to be done in each subject. The 
National Committee presented courses in nearly all studies pur- 
sued in the High School, and it is hoped the high schools of 
the country will adopt them as National Norms. 

The central thought of the report was an elastic programme, 
wide options in college entrance requirements, and the same 
kind of work for pupils in any study selected, whether such 
pupils are preparing for college or directly for the activities of 
life. 

SALARIES. 

In the arrangement of salaries teachers are separated into 
groups based upon experience, and while teachers are promoted 
or advanced regularly from year to year within the groups they 
are not supposed to be promoted from group to group except 
on merit. 

Whenever a candidate who has passed a successful exami- 
nation, and otherwise fulfilled the requirements of the Board of 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. i6l 



Edycation, is recommended by the Superintendent for a posi- 
tion and is elected, such candidate, if without experience as a 
teacher, is given $85 0,00 for the first year, $900.00 for the second 
year, and an increase of $75.00 a year thereafter until a maxi- 
mum of $1,200.00 is reached. Unless such teacher shows 
marked improvement from year to year and has superior merit 
as a teacher, he will not be promoted from this group. 

The second group begins with $1,200.00 and increases each 
year $100.00 until the maximum of $1,500.00 is reached. 

Teachers who are elected to positions in the high schools of 
Chicago, who have had successful experience in other high 
schools of similar grade and character, are credited with a part 
of such experience, not always the same, as many circumstances. 
enter as a factor into these decisions. 

The first group begins with $1,500.00 and increases $1 00.0a 
a. year until the maximum of $2,000. 00 is reached . 

In this group are supposed to be only those teachers who 
have had large and uniformly successful experience, and who 
possess extraordinary merit both as disciplinarians and as in- 
structors. 

If the real purpose of these groups could be maintained, 
and teachers promoted on merit and on the recommendation 
alone of the Superintendent, the method would be practical and 
eminently just and fair. Some years ago an effort was made to 
regulate the number that should be allowed in the several 
groups, and it was proposed that there be one-fifth in the first 
group and two-fifths in each of the second and third groups, and 
that this ratio be maintained. The measure, which did not 
seem pedagogically fair, did not pass, and yet nearly this ratio 
has been maintained. 

During the first year there have been 59, or 26.4 per cent, 
in the first group, with an average salary of $1,818.64; 82, or 
36.8 per cent, in the second group, with an average salary of 
$Ij39I-46; and 83, or 36.8 per cent, in the third group, with an 
average salary of $1,055.49. 

The grouping of teachers of German, French and Drawing 
is somewhat different, although on the same general plan. 
There have been 22 teachers of German, with an average salary 
of $1,281.82; 12 teachers of French, with an average salary of 
$1,312.08, and 26 teachers of Drawing, with an average salary 
of $1,115.00. 



1 62 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



ACCOMMODATIONS. 



It is a source of much gratification that the recommenda- 
tions which have been made for two or three years in regard to 
new buildings and increased accommodations are being gradu- 
ally carried out as rapidly as funds and the proper care of the 
children in the elementary schools have permitted. The addition 
to the Lake View High School building was completed so as to al- 
low admission of pupils in January. As a result the Blaine, the 
Greeley, and the Ravenswood elementary schools were greatly 
relieved, and the pupils of the Lake View High School, number- 
ing over a thousand, were brought together for the first time in 
several years. It will now be absolutely necessary to maintain 
the district boundaries, in order that this school may not be- 
come congested at once, and the North Division High School 
decimated during the erection of its new building. The Board 
of Education, as well as the people of the North Side, are to 
be congratulated that this improvement, so long needed, is 
being pushed to a completion. The people of the district re- 
turn thanks to every member of the Board who supported 
this measure. Special gratitude is expressed to Mr. Austin 
O. Sextbn for his indefatigable efforts. 

The important addition to the Englewood High was occu- 
pied a few weeks, and when the connection between the new 
and the old buildings is made, which will be for the purpose 
of supplying necessary laboratories, the people of this district 
will be amply supplied for a few years, and the Lewis building 
can be used exclusively for the elementary grades. 

The Northwest Division High has also received an ad- 
dition, which was much needed. 

The improvements in the Lake High have been very ben- 
eficial and add greatly to the convenience of the pupils. 

The most crying need now is a new building for the 
South Division High on the site recently purchased. This is 
the only solution of the problem that confronts us every year. 
The demand on the part of the people for the admission of 
their children to the Hyde Park High can be stayed only by 
giving to them in the vicinity of their homes a building and equip- 
ments commensurate with those of Hyde Park. There should 
be no delay in this matter as the needs are imperative. 

The Calumet High will be accommodated when the addi- 
tion to the Auburn Park school shall have been finished. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 1 63 

The Jefferson High has reached the limit of its accommo- 
dations, and the John Marshall building can no longer supply 
needs of both the elementary and the high school. 

The strictest economy has been used in the support of the 
high schools. Neither the laboratories nor the libraries are suf- 
•ficiently equipped. Maps, charts, reference books, are needed 
in every school. It is embarrassing constantly to veto requisi- 
tions from principals as we have been compelled to do. The 
maxim that what is worth doing at all is worth doing well, 
ought to be applied in the schools of the people in a great city 
like Chicago. 

RESIGNATION OF JEREMIAH SLOCUM. 

Jeremiah Slocum, who has been the able, efficient and 
popular principal of the South Division High School for more 
than a score of years, has resigned his position. Mr. Slocum 
has always been kind and affable, thoughtful of the interests of 
the pupils, and considerate of the teachers. Pupils and teachers 
have had the highest respect for him. A large number of South 
Side citizens, successful business men and heads of families, 
have been his pupils, with also their wives and their children. 
He wiil be greatly missed in his accustomed place, from which 
he voluntarily resigns, crowned with honors, respected and be- 
loved. He has had a very successful career, and has been an 
educator whose imsullied character, valuable instruction and 
noble example have helped to give Chicago what is more im- 
portant than material wealth — a moral and intelligent citizen- 
ship. May many years of pleasure, peace and plenty be his 
reward. 

STUDY OF THE LA>;(;UAGES. 

There were 9,567 pupils in the several high schools at the 
close of September, 1898, a gain of 503 over the attendance of 
September, 1897. Of this number 500 — a gain of 44, or 10 per 
•cent — were in the English High and Manual Training School, 
leaving 9,067 in thirteen Academic High Schools. 

Of this nimiber, 6,333 or 70 per cent were studying Latin, 
a gain of i per cent over that of last year and 2 per cent over 
that of two years ago; 2,497 or 27 per cent, the same as last 
year, were studying German, and 1,548, or 17 per cent, a gain 
of I per cent, were taking French. The per cent studying 
Latin in the several high schools was as follows: Calumet, 81 



164 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

% 

• 

per cent, a gain of 4 per cent; John Marshall, 80 per cent, a 
gain of 4 per cent over last year and 6 per cent in two years ; 
Hyde Park, 78 per cent, the same as last year; South Chicago, 
75 per cent, a gain of 8 per cent; Jefferson, 74 per cent, a gain 
of 4 per cent; Englewood, 71 per cent, a loss of 4 per cent over 
last year; West Division and Lake View, 69 per cent, a loss of 
4 per cent for West Division and a gain of 2 per cent for Lake 
View; Lake, 67 per cent, a gain of 13 per cent over last year, 
23 per cent in two years and 31 per cent in three 5''ears; Joseph 
Medill, 67 per cent, a gain of 6 per cent; Northwest Division, 
64 per cent, a loss of i per cent; South Division, 64 per cent, 
same as last year; North Division, 50 per cent, a loss of 3 per 
cent over last year and 5 per cent in two years. 

Of the three foreign languages, Latin has gained i per 
cent, German remains the same and French has gained i per 
cent. There have been only 225 studying Greek, a loss of 125, 
or over 37 per cent over last year. This is quite inexplicable, 
and we shall look for better things in regard to this invaluable 
language. 

PER CENT OF LOSS OF PUPILS DURING THE YEAR. 

Of the 4^241 pupils who entered the first year class in Sep- 
tember 3,261, or 77 per cent, remained throughout the year, a 
loss of 2 per cent over last year. The first year diminished 23 
TDcr cent. 

In all the high schools at the end of September there were 
9,567 pupils and at the end of June 7,845, or 82 per cent of the 
number entering at the beginning of the year. This is i per 
cent greater loss than in 1898-9. There were 503 more in Sep- 
tember, 1898, than in September, 1897, and 323 more in June, 
1899, than in June, 1898. 

The loss in all the schools for the year was 18 per cent, 
while the first year lost 23 per cent and the second year 20 per 
tent, the third year lost but 1 2 per cent, the same as last year, 
and the fourth year but 3 per cent, a gain of 4 per cent over 
last year. 

Of the separate schools the Northwest Division lost the 
largest ratio, or 23 per cent of its pupils, which is 2 per cent 
more than last year; the Englewood lost 21 per cent, i percent 
more than last year; the Calumet and Hyde Park each lost 30 
per cent, which is 7 per cent more for Calumet and 4 per cent 
more for Hyde Park ; the Lake and the John Marshall each lost 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 165 

1 8 per cent, the exact average of all the schools, which is 3 per 
cent more for Lake and i per cent more for the John Marshall 
than last year; the Lake View, North Division, South Division 
and Joseph Medill each lost 17 per cent, which is the same for 
Lake View, 3 per cent less for the North and South Divisions, 
and 8 per cent more for the Medill than last year. The Hyde 
Park lost 17 per cent, i per cent more than last year; the .Eng- 
lish High and the South Chicago each lost 16 per cent, which is 
I per cent more for the English High and 6 per cent less for 
South Chicago than last year; the West Division lost 13 per 
cent, I per cent less than last year; the Jefferson, as usual, lost 
the least, only 2 per cent. 

Four schools lost more than the average, eight lost less, 
and two the same as the average. The schools having a very 
noticeable increase in attendance over last year are the Joseph 
Medill, with an increase of 33 per cent; Calumet, 27 per cent; 
the Marshall, 24 per cent; Lake View, 11 per cent; the English 
High, 10 per cent, and the Northwest Division, 9 per cent. 

ADDITIONAL MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS AND A COMMERCIAI 

HIGH SCHOOL. 

The recommendations I have previously made I desire to 
reiterate : 

When the new North Division High School has been com- 
pleted the old buildings should be rearranged for an elementary 
school, and the old Franklin School buildings used for a North 
Side English High and Manual Training School. The site is 
ideal, the demand urgent, and the time opportune. 

As soon as convenient, a new high school should be erected 
on the South Side on the lot purchased a year ago, and the pres- 
ent South Division High remodeled for a South Side English 
High and Manual Training School. 

The same or similar conditions prevail as on the North 
Side, and the people, I am sure, would welcome these schools 
as hopeful for the retention of boys. 

A COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL. 

Equal, if not superior, to the demands for these two schools 
is the establishment of a Central Commercial High School, well 



1 66 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



equipped and thoroughly furnished for an education, not busi- 
ness in name, but in fact. It should not be a school where 
simply bookkeeping-, stenography, typewriting and telegraphy 
may be taught to prepare our boys for clerkships, but a school 
where opportunities should be offered for science, mathematics, 
commercial geography, commercial law, banking, the history of 
transportation, industrial chemistry, political economy, civics, 
and the modern languages. A full four years' course should be 
offered, equal in its informational and disciplinary value with 
any high school programme. Chicago needs it, and Chicago is 
equal to her needs. 



GRADUATING CLASS. 

It is well demonstrated in the City of Chicago, and I 
believe the same facts prevail in other places where the graded 
system is as excellent as here, that, on the average, pupils lose 
one year in passing from the first through the eighth grade. 
There are many who enter school at six years of age and com- 
plete the course at fourteen — indeed, some at thirteen, and 
even at twelve; but a large number who enter the high school 
are sixteen years old. 

For five years the following averages have prevailed : The 
class which graduated in 1895, numbering 794, entered at an 
average age of fifteen years and three months. The class of 
1896, numbering 888, entered at an average age of fifteen 
years and one month; the class of 1897, numbering 1,014, 
entered at an average of fourteen years and ten months ; the 
class of 1898, numbering 1,172, entered at an average age of 
fifteen years, and the present class, graduated June, 1899, 
numbering 1,160, entered at an average age of fifteen years. 
In the five years there has been a total variation of five months. 
The highest age was fifteen years and three months, in* 1895; 
and the lowest, fourteen years and ten months, in 1897. 

The following are the averages of entering and graduating 
of each school: At the Calumet High School the class averaged 
fifteen years and five months oif entering, and nineteen years 
and three months at graduation. At the Hyde Park, South 
Division and English High, the classes average fifteen years 
and two months on entering, and nineteen years at graduation. 
At the Jefferson and the John Marshall the classes averaged 
fifteen years and one month on entering, and eighteen years. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 167 



and eleven months at graduation. These six classes were 
about the average at the time of admission. 

At the Lake View, West Division, South Chicago and 
North Division, the average age on entering was fourteen years 
and ten months, and eighteen years and eight months at grad- 
uation. At the Englewood and the Joseph Medill, the average 
age on entering was fourteen years and nine months, and 
eighteen years and seven months at graduation. At the North- 
west Division and the Lake High, the average age on entering 
was fourteen years and six months, and at graduation, eighteen 
years and four months. These eight classes were a little be- 
low the average. The youngest pupil who graduated was Miss 
Hedwig Loeb. of the North Division High, who was fifteen 
years and eleven months old, or but eleven months older than 
the average age of the entire number at the time of their ad- 
mission four years ago. 



PER CENT OF GRADUATES. 

In June, 1895, 794 graduated. In June, 1896, 888. In 
June, 1897, 1,014. In Jime, 1898, 1,172. In June,. 1899, 
1,160. The increase has been from 12 to 15 per cent for the 
last five years until the present year. 

In September, 1895, there were 3,574 pupils in the first 
year class. In June, 1^99, four years later, 1,160, or a little 
more than 32 per cent graduated. In June, 1895, 34 per cent 
of those entering four years before graduated; in June, 1896, 
36 per cent; in June, 1897, 42 percent; in Jime, 1898, ^S per 
cent; in June, 1899, 52 per cent. 

The graduating class consists of 307 boys and 853 girls, or 
some over 26 per cent boys and a little less than 74 per cent 
girls. In 1897 there were 27 per cent boys; in 1898, 28 per 
cent, and this j^ear 26 per cent, a loss of 2 per cent over last 
year. 

The two schools graduating the largest per cent of boys 
are the Lake View and the Englewood, each 30 per cent. The 
Joseph Medill graduates 23 per cent boys; the Hyde Park, the 
South Division, the Jefferson and the John Marshall, each 22 
per cent; the North Division, the Lake and the South Chicago, 
each 19 per cent; the Calumet, 17 percent, while last year 50 
per cent from this school were boys; the West Division gradu- 
ates but 15 per cent boys this year, and the Northwest Division 



l68 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



but 12 per cent. Twenty-one per cent of all the boys who 
graduated were from the English High and Manual Training 
School. 



TO ENTER COLLEGE. 

Of the class which graduated in 1896 21 per cent expected 
to enter college; in 1897, 243, or 24 per cent; in 1898, 297, or 
25 per cent, and in the present class 281, or 24 per cent. It is 
safe to say that of the pupils who complete the eighth grade 
about 60 per cent enter the High School, of which number 
about 40 per cent graduate, and of those that graduate about 
25 per cent enter upon a college education. 

In other words, of 5,000 who complete the common schools, 
about 3,000 will enter the High Schools, about 1,200 will grad- 
uate, and about 300 will continue their education in college. 

It would be interesting to know how the careers of those 
300 twenty years later would compare with that of the 4,700 
who left school at the end of the eighth grade. There were 
eleven colleges represented among the 36 of the Englewood 
High who proposed to receive a college education. 

In 'the different schools, 40 per cent of those who graduated 
from the Jefferson High signify an intention to go to college ; 
English High, 36 per cent; Hyde Park, 33 per cent; Lake View 
and Englewood, each 32 per- cent; Calumet, 30 per cent; South 
Chicago, 26 per cent; North Division, 20 per cent; John 
Marshall, 18 per cent; West Division, 17 per cent; South Divis- 
ion, 15 per cent; Northwest and Lake, each 13 per cent, and 
Joseph Medill, 12 1-2 per cent. Eight schools send more than 
the average number. 



DESIRE TO TEACH. 

Five hundred and seventy-nine or 50 percent of the present 
graduating class express a desire to teach. This is an increase 
of 7 per cent over last year, when 43 per cent had the same 
hopes. When the Normal School course shall be increased to 
two years the per cent of those who will choose to teach will 
probably be less, and the talent and the preparation of those 
who do teach will be proportionately greater. 

The 26 per cent who will neither teach nor enter college 
have expressed an intention to enter the Art Institute, business 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 169 

schools, to study music, law, medicine, or are undecided. More 
than 90 per cent, however, have definite plans. 

In June, 1895, 5,453 graduated from the grammar schools 
and 1. 160, or 21 per cent, graduated from the high schools four 
years later. In 1895 and 1896, 23 per cent of those leaving the* 
grammar schools four years before graduated from the high 
schools. In 1897, 25 per cent; in 1898, 24 per cent, and in 
1899, 21 per cent. 

Fifty-eight per cent of those who completed the grammar 
school course in June, 1898, entered the high schools in Septem- 
ber, a loss of but I per cent over a year ago. 



THE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. F. L. Morse, Secretary, I 
present the following report of the Chicago High School Asso- 
ciation for the year just closed: 

The High School Teachers' Association continues to be an 
important and a successful factor in the elevation and unifica- 
tion of the work of the high schools. The influence of its 
meetings upon the methods and character of the secondary in- 
structions is wide, helpful and constantly increasing. The 
general meetings have been devoted to questions of scholarship 
rather than questions of method. Doubtful questions of school 
administration and school politics have been rigidly excluded 
from the programmes and discussions. 

The topics and speeches of the general meetings were : 

' * Greek Nationalism and Home Rule in the I Vth Century, 
B. C," Dr. E. B. Andrews, Superintendent Chicago Schools. 

**The Higher Mission of Contemporary English Poetry," 
Dr. F. W. Gunsaulus, President Armour Institute of Tech- 
nology. 

*VSome Educational Problems of Awakening China," Dr. 
Edward H. Eaton, President of Beloit College. 

**Is Psychology a Fad or a Factor in High School Work ?" 
Professor C. H. Thurber, University of Chicago. 

'* Public Secondary Education in England," Mr. A. E. 
Bernays, sometime Inspector of Her Majesty's Schools. 

Over forty departmental meetings, have been held. The 
fundamental idea of these meetings has been to get each 
teacher to contribute his or her best thought and experience for 
the good of all. The reports show that this idea has been well 



lyo PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

worked out. The teachers have been stimulated and helped to 
renewed interest and activity. They have thus helped them- 
selves to keep out of the narrow padagogical rut, so fatal to 
educational progress. 

CONCLUSION. 

I desire to acknowledge the uniform courtesy and valuable 
counsels of the Superintendent during the year, to thank the 
principals for their ready co-operation, the teachers for their 
fidelity and industry, and the general public for many repeated 
assurances of their confidence and esteem. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. F. Nightingale, 
Assistant Superintendent in Charge of High Schools. 



REPORT OF DISTRICT SUPERINTENDENT ALFRED KIRK, 

IN CHARGE OF DISTRICT NO. 1. 

Dr. K. Benjamin Andrews^ Superintendent of Schools : 

Pursuant to your instruction, I have the honor to submit to 
you my report upon the condition of the schools of District 
No. I. For the most part, the schools have made satisfactory 
progress. 

During the year there have been held nine meetings of the 
principals of the District, under the direction of the District 
Superintendent, for the discussion of methods of instruction 
and management. At these the trend of thought has been 
toward constructive work; the development in the pupil of 
a power to initiate his own activit}^ and to give if various forms 
of expression; material construction; thought construction in 
drawing and composition. The aim is ability to see things and 
to make a record of the same in speech and action. The closer 
the relation of all modes of expression the greater becomes the 
pupil's power to think and produce. 

Permit me to append the following report of the principals 
of the District, appointed in the latter part of the year 1897-98, 
and composed of George W. Davis, chairman; Charles D. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT I7I 



Lowry, Agnes M. Hardine, H. Amelia K. Bryant, Cephas H. 
Leach, Adelaide E. Jordan, Homer Bevans, Lizzie T. Hart, 
Cora E. Lewis and Austin C. Rishel. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON INVENTIVE AND CONSTRUCTIVE WORK 

IN SCHOOLS. 

** By constructive work is meant the organic action that 
upbuilds life — organic action that is promoted only when proper 
conditions exist which nourish and produce energy. Such con- 
ditions, to produce healthful organic action, are physical — as 
pure air, restful sleep, proper clothing, nourishing food, and 
free motor activity ; and mental — as proper intellectual stimuli, 
relations constrained only by social needs, and sympathetic, 
intelligent help, with almost perfect freedom to select from the 
environment such subject and such material as the organism 
demands. These must be selected by the child from his pres- 
ent and near environment. Arbitrary or unnaturally forced 
centralizing about particular subjects tends to subordinate the 
child to the subjects, and to substitute the means and material 
of organic action for the end of 3uch action. So courses of 
work, elaborate outlines specializing as to tonic subject or 
quantity, are not desirable; they tend to restrict the teacher, 
to promote formal, dead uniformity, rather than creative or 
inventive life. 

** The function of the teachers is to assist the child in se- 
curing a fine adjustment of the material upon which the organ- 
ism works to attain its growth to the activities most alive 
at different periods, of growth. This necessitates persistent 
scientific child study by the teacher, combined with a ready 
knowledge of the usual elements of children's environments 
that press in upon their being. 

** Inventive constructive work is promoted in such propor- 
tion as the content with which the child deals, interests and 
possesses him, because this content furnishes the impelling 
motive for his activities. Lack of opportunity to take the 
initative in observing, selecting and acting is followed by lack 
of power to initiate. Rigid courses of work assume an equality, 
a sameness, in class and school that does not exist, and compel 
the teacher and pupil to act upon material that may be far out 
of his environment, and as foreign to his free selection and 
needs as may be. 

** The school should give opportimity for the cultivation of 



172 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

the child in his social nature, in his artistic nature, and along 
the lines of his scientific tendencies, and all others that make 
for healthful organic growth. Diversities of taste, special 
aptitudes, choice of means should receive due consideration. 
The dull as well as the bright should have the right of choice. 
Restraint and imitation have their rightful places demanded by 
the necessities of social organization, but no barrier should in- 
terfere with true image-making. Promote clear seeing; let 
every image be formed by natural, symmetrical growth, per- 
mitting no distortion by undue emphasis of any element of an 
image. 

' * Every pupil should form his own image, as, indeed, he 
must ; but its elements must not be thrust upon him in such a 
manner as to load his mind with an unorganized and assimi- 
lated mass. Clear image-making, positive impressions, demand 
corresponding expression, which intensifies the impression, 
and this, expressed again in a different mode, adds to its com- 
pleteness; each adds and reacts upon the other. The school 
should furnish all possible means for varied expression, so nec- 
essary to clear imagining; for the more ways in which a child 
can express an image and the wider the range of expression, 
the richer and clearer becomes the thought content. 

* * As the individual should be free in forming his image, so 
he should be free in expressing it. This expression may not be 
perfect, but the teacher should remember that the appreciable 
is always deeper than the describable ; also, that no value should 
be given to any expression that lacks appreciation. On the 
other hand, every encouragement should be given for all modes 
of expression, with pen and pencil, with crayon, color and 
brush; with mouth and eyes, face and body; with clay and 
sand, with putty and pulp; with scissors and knife, saw and 
plane, and with any and all tools and possessions he may be 
able to utilize. If there be limitations — as there must be — let 
the means of expression be such as give the widest scope to 
motor activity. 

'* Inventive constructive work, handicraft, art, widens the 
range of expression, and thus extends and intensifies images; 
it promotes motor and sensory activities; it permits more pro- 
gressive individual growth ; it begins in and extends from the 
present and known environment, ever returning to and enrich- 
ing that environment, and thus embracing all subjects of 
thought. It may form a basis for all the old formal school work 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 1 73 

in reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, history, etc. , since they 
are aids and will be subordinated as such rather than be given 
undue prominence as the chief end of organic action. Exact- 
ness and all that power of the mind that the study of mathe- 
matics promotes may be secured incidentally, but really, in the 
construction of a box, the sawing of a board, the making of 
scientific apparatus, and, if properly directed, in all the con- 
structive work requiring drawing and the use of tools. We 
wish to add to the mind power, and the means of securing that 
addition should be of secondary importance, and must be dif- 
ferent in different cases. 

** It would not be in harmony with the creed of this report 
to specialize or outline a course of inventive work. No list can 
be more than suggestive to the true teacher. The prescription 
must be made out by the physician in accordance with his diag- 
nosis of the case. Quacks have this one course of treatment 
for all cases. We would recommend that each teacher make a 
study of how to widen the way for opportunities for varied ex- 
pression and for developing free physical, emotional and intel- 
lectual life. Let an intelligent professional diagnosis of the 
cases be made. And then let such* conditions of growth, such 
environment, such stimulation be given as are best suited to 
each case." 

The general suggestive list of subjects for constructive 
work is as follows: 

Constructive work is expected to enrich the whole range 
of academic work and ^v^^ free play for the inventive side of 
the pupil, and thereby promote his self -activity. 

Grade institutes have been regularly held throughout the 
year, in which teachers have manifested an active interest, dis- 
cussing in an earnest and intelligent manner wholesome and 
progressive methods of instruction and discipline. The aim in 
these meetings was to enlist the teachers to study the child and 
his school or social environment methods adapted to his needs 
and such means as will secure his development. The teachers 
have responded to this demand in a most gratifying manner. 

As a rule the number of pupils allotted to a teacher is 
much too large. It implies great power and almost an infinity 
of resources to take charge of, and teach in an acceptable way, 
fifty or sixty children whose home training is so varied. 

For what is praiseworthy in the school work in District 
No. I, I ascribe great credit to the principals and teachers. I 



174 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

accord them high praise for they are a loyal band of endeavor- 
ers, loyal primarily to the interests of their schools, loyal to an 
advanced educational doctrine, loyal to themselves in a com- 
mon aim to establish and spread fundamental methods of 
school policy, loyal to the school administration in a settled 
purpose to hold up the hands of those to whom are committed 
more general interests. To them I courteously extend the 
acknowledgment of my obligation in matters of administration, 
for without their assistance I should have toiled in vain. Per- 
mit me to make mention of your own kindness and courtesy to 
me during the year. I would also express my thanks to the 
Board of Education for the recognition of what may have been 
found good in my own work and for the mantle of charity cast 
over what has been weak in the administration of my office. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Alfred Kirk, 
Superintendent District No. 1 . 



REPORT OF DISTRICT SUPERINTENDENT ALBERT G. LANE. 

IN CHARGE OF DISTRICT NO. 3. 

Dr, E. Benj. Andrews, Supe^'intendent of Schools: 

Dear Sir — **The working capacities to be trained from 
infancy and more technically at school are : First, the senses to 
perceive ; second, the mind to receive, store and evoke ideals ; 
third, the hand to execute a concept ; fourth the handling and 
maneuvering of the instruments which extend and enlarge the 
operations of the hand and of the senses; fifth, the co-ordina- 
tion and alternate subordination of the senses in the acts of per- 
ception and execution." 

Eleven of the twenty-five schools in District No. 3 have 
kindergartens. The principles underlying kindergarten in- 
struction are valuable for effective work in the first grade. 

Many of the occupations and plays in the kindergartens are 
equally applicable in the first and second grades. The various 
kindergarten gifts open ways of active employment which 
enables children to express their ideas in concrete form. The 
ideas they seek to express relate to their own home life, or be- 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 1 75 

long to the life, habits, homes and surroundings of other chil- 
dren, or of living things. 

Properly to relate every pare of the kindergarten work day 
after day, so that there are continuity of thought and a pro- 
gressive development of power in the execution or expression 
of the thought, requires great skill and an intimate knowledge 
of children's capacity to receive, interpret and execute. Many 
of the plays and employments of the kindergarten become as 
formal to some children as reading, writing or routine work 
become to some of the upper grades. 

To vitalize instruction in every grade, it is necessary that 
children should find m everything they do a way to approach 
their ideals, that they should have right motives for all action, 
and that interest should inspire voluntary effort. 

All first primary teachers need a knowledge of the kinder- 
garten principles in training, and all kindergarteners should 
know something of the first grade work, in order to bring the 
kindergarten and primary work into proper relations to our 
educational system. To effect this result in the schools, con- 
ferences between kindergarten and first grade teachers of cer- 
tain schools have been held. 

Persistent and continuous efforts have been made to lead 
children to quick and accurate observation of things, actions, 
forms, relations, qualities and uses, and to cultivate the expres- 
sion of their thoughts in such language as they can command, 
before asking for written forms of expressions. 

Incidents occurring in the home, on the street, among their 
playmates; things seen in the stores, in pictures, or that have 
been learned from home readings or conversations, have been 
made the basis of language lessons. 

After some power of oral expression has been developed 
and children have learned to write, written statements of their 
thoughts have been placed on the blackboard or paper, giving 
the teacher an opportunity to aid the child in developing and 
expressing his thought, in securing correct spelling, punctua- 
tion and right forms of expression. 

When all conditions open the way for children to have 
clear ideas, some form of expression will surely follow. 

The reading is related to the children's work and written 
sentences are presented so as to express ideas closely related to 
the child's own thought. Thus symbols are recognized and ex- 
ecuted as a means of expressing thought. If forms are not 



176 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

crowded faster than the child can use them in expressing his 
thought, the keenest interest is maintained and normal mental 
growth follows. When symbols are forced upon the child's 
attention before he can appropriate them and properly associ- 
ate them, the laws ot true mental growth have been violated 
and words are memorized without a knowledge of their mean- 
ing and use. 

Constant and continued efforts have been made to teach 
reading so that the printed or written pages will reveal thoughts 
and ideas. Pupils have been trained to listen very attentively 
to what the teacher reads aloud, and to reproduce the thoughts; 
to reproduce in written form that which the teacher has writ- 
ten on the blackboard and then erased after pupils have care- 
fully scanned it to obtain the thoughts. They have been re- 
quired to read selections silently and to restate them in their 
own language. These methods, when judiciously used, have 
greatly aided pupils in getting and giving thought. 

Expression must be determined by the thought. Emotions 
guide the expression and give intensity. Tones of voice, 
movements of body and facial expression all assist in interpret- 
ing ideas. To secure a natural expression, good reading and 
correct spelling, there must be a constant effort to make all 
conditions arouse thought, to give every sound that belongs to 
a word, to cultivate pure musical tones, to let the voice and 
body indicate emotions and sentiments. Efforts are being 
made to attain these results. 

Excellent penmanship, whether vertical or slant, can be 
secured only by continuously correct work. A habit must be 
formed in executing exact forms with reasonable speed. It 
has been demonstrated that when the written work placed on 
the blackboard by the teacher is executed accurately with 
reasonable speed and for the purpose of controlling the child's 
thou ht, and the children are immediately called upon to exe- 
cute ghe same or similar expressions of thought, they promptly 
imitate the form of the sentence constructed, the form of let- 
ters and the matter of execution. If these are correct they be- 
come good writers. Experiments have been made during the 
year in several schools where special instruction in penmanship 
was given in the intermediate grades. Speed in execution was 
greatly increased, the letters were correctly made and good pen- 
manship was secured. 

Construction work has received limited attention, and has 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 177 

been restricted to things which were essentially related to other 
work. Working drawings have been made whenever practicable. 
Free hand drawing has been used as a language in connection 
with daily exercises. Colored crayons for blackboard and Manila 
paper, charcoal, pencil, pen and ink, and water colors have been 
used. Constant eflEort is made to relate closely drawing to the 
other studies. The special teachers have heartily co-operated. 

Emphasis has been placed upon selecting library books 
adapted to the different grades, and retaining books in the 
rooms, and thereby creating room or grade libraries. . Reference 
readings in history and geography, carefully selected by the 
teacher, have added greatly to the interest in these studies, and 
have enabled the teachers to correlate more closely the two 
subjects. 

The last half hours of the morning and afternoon sessions 
have been set apart in some schools as the * ' reading time. " 
Pupils who are not in recitations are permitted to select any 
book from the room library, any magazine or paper secured by 
contributions or otherwise, and to read it either at his seat or 
at the library table. Reading habits are thus formed and 
libraries made effective educational aids. 

After conferences with the principals and eighth grade 
teachers, it was decided to finish the allotted work of the eighth 
grade by May ist, so that May and June could be given to a 
general review of all studies. As geography was finished in 
the sixth grade, and pupils had forgotten much, a careful 
review was made with reference to its relation to the study of 
physiography in the ninth grade ; it was also brought into close 
relation to the reviews in history. Commercial geography 
received merited attention. 

Reviews in arithmetic and algebra, in the analysis of sen- 
tences, and the special study of the office, relations, the deriva- 
tion, meaning and spelling of words have made the closing 
work in the elementary schools very valuable as a preparation 
for secondary school work or for business occupations. 

Seven schools have secured stereopticons and have become 
members of a Projection Club, which gives them access to 
many sets of slides, illustrating literature, art, science, geog- 
raphy, history and travel. These pictures and short lectures 
are very attractive and instructive to children. Parents' recep- 
tions have been held, and the people have also been entertained 
and instructed by illustrated lectures, thus making the school- 
house the center of intellectual culture in the commimity. 



178 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

The principals and teachers have loyally devoted themselves to the 
education and training of the children and have heartily co-operated in 
every effort of the Superintendent to make the schools effective. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Albert G. Lane, 

District Superintendent. 



REPORT OF DISTRICT SUPERINTENDENT E. C. DELANO, 

IN CHARGE OF DISTRICT NO. 4. 

E. Benj, Andrews^ Superintendent of Public Schools: 

Dear Sir— In accordance with your request I submit the following 
brief report: 

The territory embraced in District No. 4 lies between Kinzie and 
Twelfth streets, the western boundary of the city between Twelfth and 
Kinzie streets, and the South Branch of the Chicago River. The Monte- 
fiore School, north of Kinzie Street, and the Victor F. Lawson, south of 
Twelfth Street, are included in the Fourth District. 

Your attention is called to the following statistical information : 

Number of high schools in the district 2 

Number of elementary schools in the district 26 

Number of kindergarten schools in the district 8 

Number of pupils at the close of the year. , 21,884 

Number of pupils in first grade 4,096 

Number of pupils in second grade 3,435 

Number of pupils in third grade 3.358 

Number of pupils in fourth grade 2,771 

Number of pupils in fifth grade 2,732 

Number of pupils in sixth grade 2,222 

Number of pupils in seventh grade 1,552 

Number of pupils in eighth grade 1,218 

Number of pupils in half-day divisions 1,833 

Per cent of attendance for the year 94. 1 

Number of elementary teachers, including principals 584 

Number of rooms owned by the city 480 

Number of rooms in rented buildings 18 

All the schoolhouses of the District are in good condition except the 
Polk street building, which will soon be superseded by a much more com- 
modious edifice situated nearer the center of the district. The new struc- 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 1 79 

ture will not only afford superior accommodations to the pupils of the 
District, but it will also appreciably relieve an overcrowded school of an 
adjoining District. 

In the eastern and central portions of the Fourth District, school popu- 
lation is no longer increasing with the rapidity of former years. In a few 
eastern districts the movement appears to be slightly retrogressive. West 
of the center the increase is rapid and continuous. The membership of 
the Tennyson, John Marshall, Sumner and Tilton Schools has passed 
beyond the original capacity of their buildings, and is still increasing. 
The pupils of those schools are in part accommodated in space not intended 
for the instruction of children, and in rented rooms more or less unhygienic 
and in other respects unfitted for effective school work. The John Mar- 
shall more than any other school in the District, on account of its rapidly 
growing high school department, needs additional room. Doubtless the 
best method of relievmg the congested condition of this school is to erect 
on the adjoining lot, the property of the city, a building for the exclusive 
use of the high school department. The elementary department of the 
school could then be fully accommodated in the existing structure. 

The pupils, present and prospective, of the Tilton School need larger 
and better accommodations. The purchase of two lots adjoining the 
present site on the east, and the erection of an eight or ten room building, 
with an assembly hall, would vacate basement rooms wholly unfitted to be 
used as class rooms, and provide for the rapidly increasing number of 
-children in the south part of the District. 

The Fourth District contains eight kindergartens, the teachers of 
which are doing excellent work. The demand for schools of this character 
is urgent and increasing. There is unanimity among principals regarding 
the desirability and necessity of the work of the kindergarten, and the hope 
is frequently expressed that the time is not distant when the improved 
financial condition of the city will enable every school to possess this 
extremely useful department of elementary instruction. The utility of 
existing kindergartens might be doubled, or very largely increased, by an 
afternoon session to be attended by an entirely different group of children. 
Admitting the superiority of the morning session for younger as well as 
-older pupils, I am convinced that an afternoon session would be in a high 
degree beneficial. 

Constructive .or hand work formed a prominent feature in the exercises 
of the schools of the District during the year. An exhibition of such work 
in June at the Calhoun School called forth many expressions of approval 
and appreciation from all who carefully observed it. I have been assured 
by principals and teachers that notwithstanding the great extent and 
vaiiety of the wore exhibited, excesive time was not devoted to it, and that 



l8o PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

attention to the essential branches of study prescribed by the course of 
instruction was not injuriously diminished. It appears to be conceded by 
teachers most deeply interested in the manual work of pupils that through 
its quickening effect on the mind, especially in inducing keener observation 
and closer and more continuous attention, scholastic progress has been 
more rapid, thorough and satisfactory. 

The educational value of hand work in immediate connection with 
ordinary school work, one may safely affirm, is universally admitted. The 
Board of Education of Chicago has fully recognized this value by establish- 
ing an excellent' system of handwork for the upper grades of its elementary 
schools, but for similar constructive work in the lower elementary grades 
no systematic provision has been made. No adequate facilities exist. The 
desired facilities for enlarged, improved and more effective handwork in 
the primary grades could be supplied by furnishing with inexpensive 
benches and tools some unused basement space or room in every school, 
into which teachers having a taste for handwork could take classes at 
stated periods for the performance of such work under more effective 
suj>ervision than could be given in the ordinary schoolroom. Much benefit, 
no doubt, has been derived from the more or less desultory way in which 
the construction work of the year has been executed, but results far more 
desirable and important are possible. To achieve the best results, the 
grade teachers should receive from the teachers in charge of the manual 
training centers instruction corresponding to that received from other 
specialists and the District Superintendents. 

It is gratifying to be able to report that the work prescribed by 
the course of study is becoming more efficiently performed because per- 
formed in accordance with the laws of mental action and growth. Not 
merely the importance, but the necessity of self activity to mental 
development is now generally recognized. Aims and methods of instruc- 
tion have greatly changed and improved through the possession of 
increased and increasing psychological knowledge. The desire for profes- 
sional improvement on the part of teachers has been most satisfactorily 
shown by regular and interested attendance at grade meetings and by the 
regular pursuit of pedagogic, literary, historical and scientific studies hav- 
ing an important bearing on the work of the school room. This enthusi- 
asm displayed by many teachers, in more thoroughly and rationally 
preparing for their work, is one of the most hoj>eful and encouraging signs 
of genuine progress. Let it not be supposed that all the teachers. of the 
District have risen to this higher plane of professional endeavor. There 
are exceptions, but those who form the exceptions have not been entirely 
stationary amid the general progress. 

It seems impossible to overvalue the importance of attention as a 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. l8l 

factor in the production of good scholarship. Doubtless, much of what is 
called poor scholarship in our schools may be correctly attributed to de- 
fective attention on the part of pupils. It seems far from being exaggera- 
tion to say that the fundamental difference between the bright, progressive 
pupil and the laggard is largely due to inattention, to lack of concentration 
on the part of the latter. For the existence of this serious mental defect, 
whose deleterious influence is perceptible in every form of mental activity, 
the teacher must be considered in no small measure responsible. In many 
school rooms a most gratifying change is apparent. By the adoption of 
suitable disciplinary exercises the attention of pupils has been so largely 
developed that memory has been perceptibly strengthened, observation 
sharpened, and scholarship appreciably improved. 

In the opinion of several principals and of many grade teachers the 
elementary course of study is far too extensive, and the authorized text 
books are not entirely satisfactory. The enrichment of the elementary 
school curriculum made a few years ago by the mtroduction of algebra, 
English history and Latin has failed in some respects to meet the expecta- 
tions of many who desired a broader field of work than was afforded by the 
so-called three R's and their usual accompaniments. High School prin- 
cipals and teachers are not wanting who assert, after long experience and 
careful observation, that there is no better equipment for successful High 
School work by the graduates of our elementary schools than a thorough 
knowledge of those branches long considered the fundamentals of a common 
school education, together with the mental discipline that the acquisition of 
such knowledge invariably secures. Should the study of Latin be eliminated 
from the grades in which it is pursued, there is little doubt that the prepa- 
ration for the High School would be as efficient as it is to-day. The study 
of English history in the elementary schools seems to be universally 
approved, but the text book in which it is studied is as universally con- 
demned because of its lack of adaptation to the capacity of those who use it. 
Could a book as admirable as Green's Shorter Course but far less extensive, 
be substituted for it, no study would be pursued vvith greater enthusiasm 
by the teacher or the taught. 

The utility of the Normal School with its accompanying cadet sys- 
tem is becoming yearly more apparent through the increasing efficiency of 
the great majority of its graduates who enter the schools as teachers. 
There is no necessity now, as in former times, for the young teacher to 
spend the first years of her pedagogical life with knowledge of mind so 
small, with educational aims and purposes so low, and educational methods 
so crude that the most valuable years of the child's school life are practi- 
cally wasted. With broader and deeper knowledge, with higher and 
nobler aims, with methods based on psychological laws clearly understood. 



l82 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

she begins her work with so large a measure of success as to elicit high 
commendation from the principal with whom she is associated. 

The elementary educational field in Chicago is an attractive one if 
judged by the increasing number of young women seeking to enter it. 
This fact not only justifies the recent extension of the Normal School 
course, but also suggests a superior scholarship as a requisite for admission 
to the school. 

The year just closed witnessed a somewhat extended effort in the 
schools of the District to introduce the departmental system of instruction. 
In regard to the merits of the departmental system the testimony of prin- 
cipals and teachers is not unanimous. The consensus of opinion is unmis- 
takably in favor of giving the revival of a practice not unknown in former 
times a fair trial. The system obviously possesses some advantages. The 
same is true of the system which it purposes to supersede, to which many 
good teachers are so ardently attached that they cannot readily and cheer- 
fully relinquish it. Nothing, they affirm, so surely neutralizes the character- 
forming influence which it is the highest functioii of the teacher to exert, 
as the temporary transfer of the pupils to the care of another. The system, 
however, is gradually winning the approval of an increasing number of 
teachers in the district, and the experience of another year may show 
results which will satisfactorily demonstrate its utility. So far no attempt 
has been made to extend the departmental system to the primary grades. 

In assiguing and transferring teachers an effort was almost invariably 
made to confer with principals prior to such action. Such conference 
generally proved advantageous, both to the school and to the teacher most 
deeply concerned in the change. While it may not be practicable for a 
principal to select his assistants, although he is held responsible for the 
school of which he is the head, it is obviously expedient that he should be 
permitted to hold what may not be inaptly termed the balance of power in 
making changes in his corps of teachers by transfer or assignment. 

I bear willing te'stimony to the zeal, fidelity, consecration and progres- 
siveness of the great majority of the teachers of the' District. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Edward C. Delano, . 
Superintendent District No. 4. 



REPORT OF DISTRICT SUPERINTENDENT ALBERT R. SABIN. 

IN CHARGE OF DISTRICT NO. 5. 

Dr. E. Benjaimn Aftdrews, Superintendent of Schools: 

The school year of 1898-99 has been one of progress in school work. 
In a major portion of my district the language of the home is not the 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 183 

language of the school. Here as elsewhere success in language conditions 
success in every other acquisition. The language of the school is the 
language of the State, and is quite as essential to the school as to the State. 
This absence of language with which to carry forward school work is a well 
defined need. It takes eight years to meet it adequately. The school that 
does the work outlined in the graded course, and in addition some equiv- 
alent for the work done for and by the child in the English speaking home, 
must have a school administration all its own. It follows that wisely 
directed effort in school administration may differ widely, materially and 
essentially in different districts or sections of our city. 

The year marks an era of progress in two especially important essen- 
tials of school effort, school decoration and manual construction work. 
The impulse to make beautiful our school rooms would seem to indicate a 
recognition of the fact that the beauty, which would indeed be a joy for 
ever, must be a joy for all. The "for all" includes South Halsted street 
as well as Ashland boulevard. Ruskin says that the beginning of art is 
making beautiful one's city and its people. If we may not hope for a 
beautiful life wholly apart from some joy of the beautiful the path we have 
entered upon should, in the near future, broaden into a recognized way. 
Again, art that is fine is the joint product of the hand, the head and the 
the heart, and thus is typical of the training the school should afford. 
Beautiful things must be placed somewhere. Why should the schools 
remain barbarian by reason of their absence ? 

Knowledge, according to Leibnitz, is intuitive or symbolical. All 
construction work, for its justification in the schools, must be in the in- 
terest of intuitive knowing. Man does not live by bread alone, but if he 
did, would there not be all the more reason for trying at least to improve 
the quality of the bread? The three R's have long stood for the bread of 
school life. They still have a place in the graded course. Their tenure is 
abiding. They are not neglected. If we devote less time to them than 
formerly it is because they demand less. We have improved the quality of 
the bread by better intuitive knowing. In the good old times when the 
three R's prevailed mightily, the reading, writing and spelling of words was 
the reading, writing and spelling of so many symbols. The intuitive 
knowing that should have been cared for in anticipation of the symbols was 
among the lessons •' never learned at school." By the old symbol teaching 
of arithmetic a year was devoted to each of the subjects, common fractions, 
decimals and percentage. Because the symbols were different they were 
supposed to be three subjects rather than one. Two-thirds of the time 
formerly devoted to a symbol classification of topics in arithmetic is now 
saved, and the result is all the better for it. 

All constructive work is art work, the joint product of hand and head. 



184 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

Much has been accomplished in this department of doing by way of school 
decoration. Many individual pupils have shown evidence of ingenuity, 
originality, versatility, inventive adaptability and imagination. If en- 
couraged in the schools and wisely directed, construction should call into 
action, as far as anything can, the exercise of every power or faculty of the 
child, from reason, the lowest, to creative imagination, the highest of these 
powers For mathematics it will do what has hitherto been left undone. 
For the motor child it may prove a safety valve. For the sensory type it 
may prove the developing of a genius rather than a dunce. There seems 
to be open to the schools a new field for better knowing through right 
doing. 

There are nine kindergartens in the district, three of which have been 
added during the past school year. In my judgment, the need for kinder- 
gartens in this district transcends all other needs in the way of school 
accommodation . 

Manual training is the one department of the public schools where the 
boys may win all the prizes. It is also the one department of the new edu- 
cation that the press has never listed as one of the fads. The reason is per- 
haps obvious. The Commercial Club took the initiative and built and 
equipped the first manual training school in Chicago. 

Dr. Felix Adler predicts for manual training a great social mission. 
He says: "Twenty- five years ago we fought to keep this people a united 
nation. Then was state arrayed against state. To-day, class is beginning 
to be arrayed against class . The chief source of the danger, I think, lies 
in this, that the two classes of society have become so widely separated by 
difference of interest and pursuits that they no longer understand each 
other, and misunderstanding is the fruitful mother-source of hatred and 
dissension. This must not continue. The manual laborer must have time 
for intellectual improvement. The intellectual classes, on the other hand, 
must learn manual labor; and this they can best do in early youth, in 
school, before the differentiation of pursuits has yet begun." 

Every man on American soil is expected to work or know how to. 
Every father wishes his son to work and to learn to do something. In the 
early days of the republic boys did not go to school to learn to work. 
When they went to school they left their work at home. Such is still the 
case in the country and rural districts. In the cities a boy's hands are idle 
for utter lack of something- to do with them. The work-bench with its 
equipment provides an enjoyable activity for the boy's hands as well as his 
head. As a relief from books, it's as good as play; and so the boy thinks 
and says in the beginning. But when he is able to do something really 
worth doing he settles to his work seriously. Pedagogically, manual train- 
ing awakens self-confidence and dignity. It stimulates attention, concen 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 185 

tration, perseverance, and continuity of effort. It awakens latent construc- 
tive and artistic powers. It stimulates invention and cultivates taste. 

At present there are three workshops in the district, with an equip- 
ment for the boys of the seventh and eighth grades. It is to be hoped that 
provision can soon be made for the boys of the fifth and sixth grades. 

The household arts — cooking and sewing — have met with much favor 
throughout the district, both in school and at home. Extendefd facilities 
are desired — sewing for the sixth and seventh grades, and cooking for the 
eighth. 

Nature study, a recent extension of the graded course, is in its second 
advent. At first it was labeled '* Object Lessons." The lessons proceeded 
with neve# an object and so died a perfectly natural death. All 
credit is due our principals and teachers for securing to this department of 
school work the promise of an abundant life. In their preparation for the 
lesson hour with nature, the teachers have discovered, each for herself, as 
'twas necessary, that there is a world of science, that their pupils were not 
born into this wonderful world but are to be led into it through a world of 
sense-perception, that in close touch and relationship with the world of 
science is the world of art ; that art is the nobler of the two, since it is 
nobler to create than to dissect, but that science conditions art as sense- 
perception conditions both. These discoveries have created methods, and 
our pupils are safely led into the worlds of science and art by these methods ; 
safe because psychology has shown the way. 

With singular tenacity the term "fad" has clung to both drawing 
and music as branches of a public school education. They began to be 
taught by specialists in the Chicago schools about the time corporal punish- 
ment was abandoned. An act to eliminate them from the schools, to be 
consistent, should re-establish the old order. The advocate who would 
limit the schools to the three R's justifies his position on the ground of 
conservatism. If conservatism is a wall between society and mad folly, 
yet when a new and true idea comes this wall must be torn down that we 
may move out and on. To learn to draw is to teach the eye to see and the 
hand to represent truly the images of sight. As Ruskin says, the sight is 
more important than the drawing. The eye needs training to use aright 
the faculty of vision. Few acquisitions are more desirable. Truth of 
sight indefinitely increases the pleasure of living. It helps to form and 
regulate judgments; to refine and cultivate taste. In its lowest estimate 
it is an accomplishment affording a mode of expression second only to 
language. 

Illustrated books and magazines enhance the need of instruction in 
drawing — a new appeal to the intelligence. A correct appreciation of this 



1 86 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

mode of appeal can be acquired only through a knowledge of the principles- 
of drawing. 

If an illustration is harmful through falsehood, a knowledge of draw- 
ing will detect the falsehood. A knowledge of drawing helps one to- 
discriminate good work from bad in art, and why should not our pupils be 
trained to know a good picture as well as a good book? A great picture 
like a great book is the expression of a great soul. 

Music as a science makes little demand upon the children in the 
schools. A few tone symbols, called notes, varying somewhat in figure to 
denote relative length of tone, placed upon a series of lines and spaces to 
indicate pitch, barred off into measures for the rythmic beat, scale intervals^ 
and key symbols constitute nearly the whole of it. 

Singing is a moral element. Its mission is to afford pleasure All 
pleasure is good and right if it results in no harm. If it results in harm it 
ceases to be pleasure. If the good be pleasure, the best is the greatest 
pleasure. More people spend their money for the pleasure they derive 
from music than for any other of the fine arts. 

Music, to be the most useful of all the arts, needs only to be always 
near us, that it may come at our call. No other art is so universal ; and, 
while asking for but little time, it lies within the reach of all and gives 
happiness to all. 

The public schools will fail to meet the reasonable demands of the 
people when they become inferior to the best schools obtainable anywhere. 
The best schools will afford instruction in whatever is necessary for the 
education of the hand, the head, and the heart of the child entrusted to its 
care. 

Two school buildings — the Frank J. Jirka and the John Spry — have 
been completed the past year. These buildings are fire-proof. Each con- 
tains twenty -two class rooms, an assembly hall, kindergarten and manual' 
training rooms on the ground floor, a library and an office. They are verit- 
able temples of art in school-building. 

The Jirka was opened during April and was formally dedicated in 
May. Twenty-three rented rooms were closed when the Jirka was occu- 
pied. The opening of the Spry in September will effect the closing of eight 
rented rooms hitherto attached to the Hammond School. 

There still remain forty rented rooms in the district, and the number 
of pupils in single session or double -division rooms will show an increase in 
September over previous years. This is owing to the fact that the Foster, 
Washburne, Garfield, Smyth, Throop, Longfellow, Kominsky. Cooper, 
Froebel. Pickard, Lawndale, Thos. Chalmers, and George Rowland Schools- 
are over full. The Foster, Washburne, Garfield, and Smyth should be 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 1 87 

afforded relief to the extent of 300 pupils in the rebuilding of the Polk 
Street School. A new building in the vicinity of the Eighteenth Street 
School will provide for the overflow at the Throop, Longfellow, and 
Kominsky. The Cooper, Froebel, and Pickard need each a nine-room ad- 
dition or a new district. The Lawndale needs a new building at once. A 
nine-room addition will be needed at the Thos. Chalmers in the near future, 
A new school west of the George Rowland will soon be a necessity. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. R. Sabin, 

District Superintendent. 



REPOflT OF DISTRICT SUPERINTENDENT JAMES HANNAN. 

IN CHARGE OF DISTRICT NO. 6. 

Dr. E. Benjamin Andrews, Superintendent of Schooh: 

In accordance with your suggestion, I submit the following report for 
year ending June, 1899, of the schools of District No. 6, and their admin- 
istration and work : 

TERRITORY AND LOCATION. 

District No. 6 is, in a general way and without tracing the exact 
boundary, that part of the South Division west of Halsted street and north 
of Forty-third street ; also that part of the same division west of Wallace 
street and south of Fifty-fifth street ; and also that part of the same di- 
vision, between Forty-third and Fifty-fifth streets, that is west of State 
street. It is a large and growing district. In a business sense, no con- 
siderable part of the district is in a condition of stagnation or retrogres- 
sion. Nearly every school is growing, and in two-thirds of them the mem- 
bership exceeds the accommodations. This is true, notwithstanding effort 
to provide accommodations and in spite of the fact that the city owns more 
sittings than there are pupils in membership. During tHe last ten years 
seventeen school buildings, or additions to such, have been erected in this 
district, containing sittings for 14,485 pupils. 

PROBLEM OF SCHOOL ACCOMMODATIONS. 

While commendable effort has thus been made to provide buildings 
and sites for the district, much in that direction remains to be done. The 
accommodations for the present population,' asjthatjpopulation is located, 
are inadequate. It should be borne in min d>that;there^is *in the'district^a 
great deal of uninhabitated territory, probably ^^ destined jJerV Ion g" to" be 



l88 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



built upon. Apart from the numerous vacant lots in the more settled 
parts there are more than 12,000 acres of land still used for farming pur- 
poses. 

The conditions arising from the sudden and unequal growth of popu- 
lation in certain neighborhoods make the duty of providing accommoda- 
tions a complicated problem, requiring continuous attention. In the terri- 
tory west of "Wallace street, between Forty-ninth and Sixty-ninth streets, 
there have been built six large school buildings to accommodate a neigh- 
borhood that was practically vacant ten years ago. Every one of these 
buildings is now unable to accommodate its membership, and the new 
Dewey School, and the addition to the Earle School now in process of 
erection in that territory, will be filled as soon as finished, and will not 
fully accommodate the present population. 

SPECIFIC ACCOMMODATIONS SUGGESTED. 

New buildings are needed on the sites owned by the city on Loomis 
street, between Fifty-third and Fifty-fourth streets, and on Thirty-third 
place, between Auburn and South Morgan streets. 

The original plans of the Herman Raster building contemplated a 
sixteen-room structure. The present building contains only eight rooms 
and should be enlarged to conform to the original plans or otherwise. 

The site of the Shields School is occupied by an old six- room wooden 
building, which is very imperfect and inadequate. It should be replaced 
by a new building for which an appropriation was made three or four 
years ago. 

A new site and building are needed in the vicinity of Fifty-ninth 
street and Centre avenue. 

Additions are now needed, or will soon be, at the McAllister, Hen- 
dricks, Graham, Holmes, and probably at the D. S. Wentworth Schools, 
and adjoining lots for the enlargement of the sites will be desirable in 
most of these casesr. 

MEMBERSHIP AND SITTINGS. 

For the efficient work of a school there ought to be considerably more 
sittings than pupils Such excess of sittings enables the school manage- 
ment to provide for the care and progress of the individual in a way that is 
almost impossible when every seat is full and the teacher is overwhelmed 
with an excessive membership. It would be a great improvement in this 
respect if the schools could be organized with one room and teacher for 
every forty-five pupils. In this district the schools are so organized in the 
few cases where the accommodations permit it. There were at the close of 
the year twenty schools, with 670 teachers. The enrollment of pupils for 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. ' 189 

the year was 32,871, and the average daily membership 27,501. The 
number of seats owned by the city was 27,945. It will thus be seen that 
there v as an enrollment of nearly 5,000 above the number of seats owned 
by the city. This deficiency was made up, in part, by renting 3,872 seats. 
The enrollment, membership, attendance, and number of teachers are each 
slightly larger than in any of the other districts. At the close of the year 
there were 3,147 pupils in rented buildings and 2,343 pupils attending 
school but half a day. 

There is said to be in the private and parochial schools of the district 
an enrollment of something more than 15,000 pupils of school age, and if the 
same relation between enrollment and membership in these schools as in 
the public schools be assumed, their membership is not far from 12,000 
pupils. 

ASSIGNMENT OF TEACHERS. 

The opening of new rooms and the occurrence of occasional vacancies 
made necessary the assignment of many new teachers. These assignments 
were made in accordance with that rule of the Board which provides that 
the Superintendent "shall make assignments of assistant teachers in the 
elementary schools, from the list of appointments for assignment made by 
the Board from time to time, but such assignments shall be made by him 
only with the concurrence of the School Committee on the school to which 
such assignment is to be made." During the year 57 new teachers were 
thus assigned, of whom 35 were cadets and 22 were experienced teachers. 

IN THE SCHOOLS. 

The work of the schools during the year was characterized by en- 
couraging success. There was very little friction, a large amount of 
intelligent industry, very commendable progress on the part of the pupils, 
and perceptible professional improvement on the part of teachers. 

The absence of friction is shown by the infrequency of reasonable 
complaints, and by the small number of special suspensions occurring in 
the district. The number of special suspensions reported was 18. This 
was one for every 1,826 pupils enrolled, and one for every 1,528 pupils in 
membership. In the settlement of these cases, and in general, there was 
considerable liberality in the matter of granting permission to pupils to 
change from one school to another. It was thought wise to respect to the 
greatest extent practicable the wishes of parents in this direction. 

The number of promotions during the year was 5dl,404, which is 77.8 
per cent of the daily membership There is little constancy of relation 
between the size of the graduating class in a school and the membership 
of the school. Usually a greater proportion of the pupils graduate in the 



190 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

smaller schools than in the larger. While the peculiarities and fashion of 
the neighborhood and the habits, traditions and necessities of parents in 
reference to keeping their children in school may account in part for this 
discrepency, it may still be made a fruitful subject of thought by all con- 
cerned in the management of schools. 

SCHOOL AND DISTRICT COUNCILS. 

During the year much reliance was satisfactorily placed on the work 
of the school and district councils. 

The work of the district council and that of the school councils in 
District No. 6 during the past year was carried on in a good spirit and was 
interesting, hopeful and promising. Profitable discussions were held on 
the question of "Constructive and Creative Work." After it had been con- 
sidered in the school councils, two or three meetings of the district council 
were given to various aspects of this question. At these meetings there 
was exhibition 'of work on a small scale from many schools, and there was 
free and full discussion of the whole subject. While exhibitions of credit- 
able handiwork may be found in almost every school room, these discus- 
sions and meetings prevented the conversion of any room or school into a 
mere factory, and led teachers to see that the proper outcome of the agitation 
of this question is a renewed effort to make the daily work of the schools 
more concrete, and more and more to make that daily work relate to mat- 
ters skillfully brought within the pupil's experience. Thus, to a large ex- 
tent, every lesson, every recitation and every school exercise may be made, 
in a large and in a true sense, "constructive and creative work." 

There were also valuable discussions on the subject of "departmental 
work." Serious and intelligent attention was given to this important ques- 
tion. Considerations for and against the departmental method below the 
high school were thoughtfully entertained and discussed. The general 
effect of the discussion was the tentative establishment of partial depart- 
mental work in several schools. Reports where trial has been made are 
generally very favorable, and there is likely to be considerable extension 
of that method in this district wherever the conditions are favorable. 

Meetings were also held for the discussion of other subjects named 
for that purpose from the central council. One meeting was devoted to 
the discussion of scrubbing school houses and the regulations of the Board 
relating thereto. One meeting was held wherein certain provisions of the 
Harper bill were discussed under the title of "Expert Responsibility. ' ' There 
was also an interesting meeeting for the discussion of the important ques- 
tion of the "Teacher's Tenure of Office," which topic was sent to the central 
council from a neighboring district council, and by the central body re- 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. I91 

ferred to the other councils. While these discussions were entertaining 
and appropriate, they were perhaps less valuable than those first men- 
tioned because they had reference to matters personal rather than profes- 
sional, and less closely connected with the daily work of the school. Be- 
sides they were matters over which the council had no direct or other con- 
trol, and not much influence. In the view of the council, as revealed in the 
discussions, there is no dangerously near approach to godliness in the 
Board's three-times a year scrubbing regulation. The council was entirely 
out of sympathy with many provisions of the Harper bill, and strongly in- 
clined to favor a more stable tenure of office for teachers than that pro- 
vided by the present rule of the Board. 

HOUSEHOLD ARTS. 

The work of the Department of Household Arts, largely owing to the 
•killful supervision of Mrs. Ella F. Young, who planned it, was successfully 
inaugurated. "A cooking center was established at the McAllister School, 
which was attended by seventh and eighth grade girls from schools in the 
vicinity, including at least two schools from District No. 7. The sewing 
program provided thirty- six lessons per month for the seventh and eighth 
grades, and included all the schools in the district except those attending 
the cooking center and three or four others inconvenient of access and with 
small classes. The work is popular, useful and successful, and ought to be 
continued and extended. 

MANUAL TRAINING. 

There are at present five manual training centers, and most of the 
schools in the district are within reach of them and send their seventh and 
eighth grade boys for one exercise per week. The pupils of two or three 
schools are accommodated in centers in neighboring districts, and pro- 
grams have been so arranged that girls in the department of household 
arts and boys in the department of manual training from the same rooms 
are occupied at the same hour with these subjects The work of these two 
departments, so far as school time is concerned, is thus successfully accom- 
plished by giving to both one recitation period per week. 

KINDERGARTENS. 

Kindergartens are in operation in ten schools. The Board took favor- 
able action toward the establishment of four or five others during the year, 
but the scarcity of money prevented the consummation of that action, and 
no new kindergartens have been opened. 

There is abundance of testimony to the popularity and efficiency of 



192 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

this work wherever it is doing. Incidentally, during the year, principals in 
whose schools the work was going on had occasion to report on its value 
and effect, and there was universal acknowledgment of both. It is much 
to be desired that the means of the Board may enable it greatly to extend 
the work of this department without delay. 

SPECIAL STUDIES 

The special studies, physical culture, German, music and drawing, 
were successfully pursued. A marked and very general feature of the 
closing exhibitions at the end of the year were the pretty exercises in 
calisthenics, which showed a cultivated and trained attention, an intelligent 
comprehension of directions, and a prompt and cheerful obedience, all 
great educational and moral virtues which, in addition to the physical 
advantages of the work, can be fairly credited to the department of 
physical culture 

The work of the special teachers of music and German "was regularly, 
and, on the whole, competently done. In drawing, exceptional interest and • 
success are to be reported. Large demands were made on the time of the 
teachers and the powers of the pupils, and these demands were met and 
fulfilled in a most cheerful and encouraging way. Several very creditable 
exhibitions of work done in the schools in this department were held, sup- 
plemented by loans from Miss Josephine Locke s collection and loans 
of pictures and statuary from the Public School Art Society. Work, 
pictures and statuary were beautifully arranged in the assembly halls and 
corridors ; large public meetings were held and suitable addresses given. 
There were thus furnished receptive ears and eyes to the object and other 
lessons of the friends of art and of aesthetics in general. 

CONCLUSION. 

It is a pleasure to report the passage of a year thus pleasant and 
profitable. While there has been a very large degree of freedom, there 
has been a healthy and invigorating atmosphere, stimulating all kinds of 
desirable progress. Whatever of unrest, suspicion, distrust, or unsympa- 
thetic criticism, or threatened or actual individual censure, or punishment, 
may have been experienced, are no part of the influences that have been 
dominant, or that have been relied on to inspire effort and to secure results. 
The success of the year is attributed to the loyal, prompt and competent 
response by principals, teachers, both general and special, and pupils, to 
every reasonable demand made on them. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

James Hannan. 

Chicago, August 7, 1899. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 193 

REPORT OF DISTRICT SUPERINTENDENT LESLIE LEWIS. 

IN CHARGE OF DISTRICT NO. 7. 

Dr. E. Benjamin Andrews^ Superintendent of Schools: 

In compliance with your request, I herewith submit my report for 
District No. 7. The statistics will be found elsewhere in your report, and 
need not be presented here. 

There has been the same rapid growth in number as is found in other 
parts of the city. It is impossible to keep up with the demand for 
additional accommodations. There is m some localities an urgent demand 
for more school rooms The nine-room additions at the McClellan and 
Healy Schools were filled as soon as completed. All the new rooms at the 
Ward School are.now used except one, and that will have to be opened in 
September. The same is true of the Fallon School. The people in these 
congested districts wait patiently, permitting their children to be crowded 
into store rooms without ventilation and poorly lighted, knowing that it is 
impossible for the Board of Education to erect buildings without money. 

The principals have met me at the Carter School every month of the 
school year except May and June. At these meetings various matters have 
been discussed — some of them purely local, pertaining to our district, and 
some of a purely pedagogical nature. The principals have entered into 
these discussions with much interest and feel, I think, that they have been 
profitable. There has been a number of meetings of the teachers by 
grades These have alw lys been called with some specific object in view, 
as the result of the observation of the principals or superintendent. The 
teachers assure me that they not only have enjoyed these meetings, but 
that they have been very much benefited by them, going back to their 
school rooms with greater enthusiasm and much encouraged in their work. 

As a result of these conferences, permit me to make a few suggestions 
for your consideration and judgment. I present only those upon which 
the principals and teachers are practically unanimous in their conclusions. 
It is their opinion that the time has come when our course of study should 
be revised. Several years have passed since the present course was 
adopted by the board. In that time there have been radical changes, both 
as to subject matter and methods of teaching. The opinions of our best 
educators as to the relative importance of the different studies have 
changed materially, and, to keep up with modern thoughts and modern 
methods, a course of study must change frequently. These changes have 
been rapid and very radical in our colleges and secondary schools and the 
advancement in our elementary schools demands a change in our outline of 
study. We have in the different branches among our principals and 
teachers many experts. A committee on each of the important studies, 



194 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

selected from these experts and presided over by one of the district super- 
intendents could prepare an outline that would be a great improvement on 
the one now in use. Each committee should come from the actual and 
everyday workers in our schools, because they know best what the pupils 
can and ought to do in each grade. This a mere theorist cannot know. 
The outline in each study should be made by a committee, because the 
wisdom of several experts is better than the wisdom of one. Finally, a 
committee should be appointed, with the Superintendent at its head, to 
take these several outlines and correlate them into one course of study, so 
as to see that the experts and enthusiasts in any one study do not demand 
so much as to encroach upon other studies. 

It is I think, the almost unanimous opinion of the teachers of our dis- 
trict that too much is required in our present course. In our desire to get 
away from the domination of the three *'Rs." is it not possible that we 
have gone too far? Is there not a tendency to crowd into the elementary 
school some things that ought to be left for the high schools, and some things 
into our high schools that ought to be left for the colleges? Surely we 
ought not to make colleges out of our high schools, or high schools out of 
our higher grammar grades. The clamor of enthusiasts that their particu- 
lar subject or branch be given more time and attention has gradually 
crowded so much into our elementary schools that the work cannot be well 
done in the time allowed. 

There is a general feeling among the teachers that the poorest work 
in our schools today is that in English. Perhaps the most important reason 
for this is the fact that educators have not yet agreed upon the kind of 
work that ought to be done, and that no well defined plan of work has been 
formulated, as is the case in all other branches of study. Our teachers are 
experimenting. As a result of these experiments there will eventually be 
developed a plan of work in English that will commend itself to our best 
teachers. Another reason for our unsatisfactory English teaching is lack 
of time. The teachers and pupils are rushed from the beginning to the 
end of each session, and there is no time for the supervision of the pupil's 
reading. 

LATIN. 

Our Latin teaching in the seventh and eighth grades is not satisfac- 
tory, but might easily be made so. Some pupils are permitted to take 
Latin who ought not to, and it is taught in some schools where it ought 
never to have been introduced. It went into these schools because the 
Superintendent was powerless to prevent it. If the requisite number 
asked for it they could have it whether the desire was wise or not. No 
pupil whose record for scholarship has been uniformly poor, should be per- 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. I95 

mitted to take an additional study, and no one who does not inten'd to com- 
plete the high school course should be permitted to study Latin in the 
grammar grades. In many of our schools Latin is well taught, and many 
of our pupils have found that the two years given to that study in an ele- 
mentary school has been of great advantage to them in their high school 
work. This whole matter should be left entirely with the Superintendent, 
and he alone should determine where and by whom Latin should be taught, 
and It should be no additional expense to the Board of Education, 

These are a few of the subjects discussed at conferences with the 
principals and teachers of the district, and their importance seems to war 
rant my reporting them to you for your consideration. 

In conclusion, permit me to thank you for your uniform courtesy and 
wise counsel extended to me during the year, and also to express my appre- 
ciation of the hearty and intelligent support of Mr. Keating and Mr. Gross, 
the committee men of the district. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Lkslik Lkwis. 



REPORT OF GUSTAV A. ZIMMERMAN, SUPERVISOR 

OF MODERN LANGUAGES. 

Dr. E. Benj . Andrews, Superintendent of Schools : 

The following data touching the work of the Modern Language 
Department during the past year are herewith respectfully submitted: 

German was taught in the four upper (grammar) grades of the Ele- 
mentary Schools and in the High Schools. The average number of pupils 
studying German was 33,015 and the total enrollment 40,003, of which 
number 15.020 are of German parentage, '12,195 of Anglo-American, and 
12,788 belong to other nationalities, the total number showing an increase 
of 2.324 over the membership of the preceding year. The corps of teachers 
of German employed in the Elementary Schools consisted of 210 instructors, 
the average number of pupils to each being 190. In the High Schools 2.481 
pupils were purusing the study of German, 1,310 the study of French, and 
12 the study of Spanish. The number of German teachers was 22, of 
French 15, and of Spanish 1. 

In your Supervisor's report for 1892-93 the question of the advisability 
of teaching the Gerinan language m the Elementary Schools was 
treated at some length. The arguments therein adduced have gained 
strength in the passing years. Experience has verified them. In increas- 
ing numbers pedagogues and laymen alike are joining the ranks of those 



196 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

who contend that the teaching of this subject is a decided benefit to the 
children of our schools. 

The study of at least one other language besides one*s native tongue 
is no pedagogic mistake, and therefore does not stand in need of apology 
or defense ; but to show the stress which both ancient and modem people 
lay upon this study, I take the liberty to quote from various sources : 

" LAnfrusLges are not learned as part of scholarly attainments or of scienee, but as a means 
to obtain and transmit culture. Hence not all lan^^uages should be studied, which would be an 
impossibility ; nor many, which would be useless, since time would be detracted from other 
valuable studies, but those that are essential. Essential is the mother tongue on account of the 
communication with those at home, next the languag^e of our neighbors, and last the ancient 
languages. AMOS COMENIUS." 

*' Who knows foreign languages may call the world his own. J. G, SEUME." 

" With every new language you acquire you liberate a spirit hitherto bound in you. 

*♦ FR. RUECKERT." 

"The study of several languages is not only an iadirect but a direct and important means 
ot mental discipline ; hence the saying of Charles V., * So many languages, so many times a 
man." ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER." 

" Courses of instruction that confine language study to the English, eliminating foreign 
tongues, ancient or mo<lem, ignominiously fail in the production of that power essential to 
modern culture. DR. A. F. NIGHTINGALE.*' 

"There is, I take it, but little need to emphasize the advantages of knowing other 
languages than one's own native tongue from the point of view of general culture. This is too 
apparent and has been too commonly conceded to call for active argument. The premise is true, 
in a general way, on the basis that all knowledge is power ; and it is true, also, in a special way, 
in that this particular kind of knowledge is an altogether active force in a man's equipment, be he 
young or old. 'So many languages, so many times a man,' is even truer to-day than when it 
was uttered, because present conditions demand a broader stage of action and the consequent 
ability to act one's part along broader lines. 

"PROF. WILLIAM H. CARPENTER, Columbia University.*' 

" Many speak strongly against the bilinguistic and multilinguistic education of our chil- 
dren ; they assert that the brain is overtaxed ; that the time and power could be applied to better 
purpose ; that superficiality in thinking and learning, even deficiency in feeling and w^illing, 
might be the consequence. My experience has disproved such assertions. 

" PROF. GEORGE VON DER GABLENTZ." 

"The power to speak makes us human beings ; the power to speak two languages makes 
us educaled human beings. THEO. MOMMSEN." , 

The opinion that modern languages should be given preference 
over ANCIENT is rapidly gaining ground among thoughtful men. In a 
pamphlet issued by the National German- American Teachers' Association, 
from which I freely quote in these pages, this opinion is emphasized by 
philosophers and educators of repute. The teaching of modem languages 
is no longer a local question, but has come to assume world-wide sig- 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 197 

nificance in educational circles. In France, M. Bourgeois, late Minister of 
Education, proved his sjrmpathy with the movement by establishing new 
schools where living languages replace the dead ones. 

Almost all the nations of Western Europe are involved in •* the revolt 
against classical education. '* Mr. Balfour favors a more thorough study of 
modern and easier languages. 

Alexander Bain says : •' Every person * * * would be urged to 
take up at least one foreign language, giving the preference to a modern 
language. ' * 

*'The lan^ia^es which claim most loudly the regard of an Eng'Iish speakinjf g'entleman of 
the present day, whether on the east or on the west side of the Atlantic, are French and German. 

•♦ J. STUART BLAKIE, Professor of Greek, Kdinburg^h University." 

The conference on Modern Languages of the Committee of Ten 
recommended that an elective course in German or French should be pro- 
vided in the grammar school, the instruction to be open to children at 
about 10 years of age. The conference made this recommendation "in the 
firm belief that the educational effects of modem language study will be of 
immense benefit to all who are able to pursue it under proper guidance." 

The Committee of Fifteen recommended that the foreign language 
introduced into the elementary school course should be a modern language 
— French or German. 

The opinions ((uoted in this report — opinions of men of national, and 
some of them international, reputation — should certainly have great 
weight in the consideration of this vital question. That they are unbiased, 
a glance at the names of those who expressed them will show. That they 
are sound, past experience has proved. They require no further comment. 

The past year has seen a gratifying improvement in the work of the 
department, and an increased interest in the study on the part of both 
pupils and parents. In many schools special exercises were held, com- 
memorative of the birthdays of Germany's greatest poets, Goethe and 
Schiller, and other occasion-* were similarly improved. These exercises 
were generously attended by the patrons of the respective schools, who by 
this means came into closer touch with the spirit of the work and with the 
instructors. Many who •* came to scoff ' * forgot their prejudices owing to 
the interest the various programs aroused. 

Economy has, perforce, been the watchivord since the beginning of 
the. fiscal year. Vacancies caused by resignation, or otherwise, have not 
been filled, substitutes being employed to do the work of regular teachers. 

I desire to express my hearty appreciation of the zeal and intelligence 
of the teachers whose efforts so greatly enhanced the interest felt in the 
study and whose unremitting labor achieved results worthy of com- 
mendation. 



198 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

To the Board of Education my hearty thanks are due for the con- 
fidence and support so generously extended during the past year. 

Respectfully submitted, 

G. A. ZiM MERMAN N, 

Supervisor Modern Languages. 



REPORT OF HERMAN HANSTEIN. SUPERVISOR OF DRAW- 
ING IN THE HIGH SCHOOLS. 

Dr. E. Benjamin Andrews^ Superintendent of Schools: 

The courses of drawing in the high schools consist of two branches : 
freehand drawing and constructive drawing. 

The course in freehand drawing includes pencil drawing, perspective, 
light, shades and shadows, charcoal, crayon, pastelles, *• black and white' 
and watercolors, and the application of these mediums to biology, botany,, 
physical geography, history, microscopy, designing and the drawing from 
objects, of groups of solids, of plaster casts and of still life, in monochrome, 
polychrome and *• black and white." 

The course in constructive drawing includes planimetric construc- 
tions, projection of points, lines, surfaces and solids - their revolutions in 
space and developments— the regular and irregular penetrations of regular 
and irregular solids and developments, the angular projection, the perspec- 
tive and light, shade and shadows. 

These courses have been followed in our high schools for the last 
twenty years. They were adopted officially by the Board of Education five 
years ago and will be found to coincide with the course in drawing of art 
schools, in the preparatory classes, and the first two years of the study of 
drawing in universities and in schools of technology. 

Fifteen years ago the University of Ann Arbor awarded credits in 
drawing to our high school graduates, and lately the Universities of Illinois 
and Wisconsin have agreed to honor our graduates in a like manner. 

A constant vigilance and the study of new methods, of progressive 
books and publications in art, in design, in applied mathematics, in means 
of instruction, and the application of Burrel's skeleton models*— all these 
have assisted to maintain in our drawing department a high efficiency and 
a well-earned reputation. I sincerely recommend to you the faithful and 
conscientious work of my assistants, without whom the department could 
not have obtained the highest recognition in competitive exhibitions, as at 



♦An arrsinjj^ement to build g^eometrical solids by the pupil in skeleton form; devised and 
made by the present Supervisor as a help to the assistants of the department in the instruction in 
drawing, and to the teachers in solid jjeoitietry in the instruction in mathematics. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 199 

Atlanta, Baltimore, and at the yearly educational exhibits in connection 
with the State Fair at Springfield, where our department during the last 
ten years has received nearly all awards offered by the State authorities to 
the high schools. 

During the past year a severe and rigid economy had to be exercised 
by the Board of Education to such an extent that we were not able to 
procure some of the most necessary means of instruction, as geometrical 
solids, still-life objects and models of constructive drawing. Thus we were 
hampered materially in the execution of our program, and had to substitute 
frequently objects which were in the individual reach of the assistants. 

The educational and practical utility of drawing in correlation with 
the established curriculum of studies is more and more appreciated by 
principals and colleagues, and we have gained steadily a vast stretch of 
ground. Especially is this the case since, for example, in the biological 
laboratory— where the work is of the most instructive assistance to the 
student. Here every specimen is analyzed, then sketched, and the sketch 
is finished in natural tints in water colors. Such a representation is then 
the accurate description of the subject under consideration, better in defini. 
tion, better in form and better in the total conception than a written com- 
position. 

And what I have illustrated here by biology is equally true in other 
studies, as the great entend and application of constructive drawing to 
science, to architecture and to manufacturing pursuits will and must be 
recognized by the public and by the progressive teachers as one of the most 
valuable courses in our high schools. 

The public and those who are especially interested in this branch of 
public instruction are respectfully invited to inspect specimens of pupils' 
work in drawing during the session of the schools, on Mondays and 
Wednesdays trom three to five p. m., at the rooms of the Board of Educa- 
tion. 

The collection comprises studies in art, in design, in physical geogra- 
phy, biology, chemistry, in physics, mathematics, optics, in architecture 
and machinery, executed in monochrome, in polychrome, in pen and ink, 
in "black and white" and in constructive drawing. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Herman Hanstein. 



REPORT OF JOSEPHINE C. LOCKE. SUPERVISOR OF DRAW- 
ING IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 

Dr, E. Benja^nin Andrews, Superiiitendeiit of Schools: 

In my previous reports I have from time to time drawn attention to 
the limitations of the school system of 1833 and the necessity for supple- 



200 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

men ting it by providing for a freer channel for the spontaneous self- 
expression of the child, such as is supplied by the practice of free-hand 
drawmg. Imparting of information and the mastery of the tools of 
thought, such as reading and writing, unless balanced by other work 
usually result in a supine and inert mental condition—a repression of the 
child's innate feelings and characteristics. 

Education is slowly recognizing that growth is in proportion to self- 
expression. 

Free-hand drawing affords by far the richest field for self-expression ; 
nothing takes its place in the promotion of child development. Mechanical 
drawing does not promote self-expression so much as it does promote the 
mastery of tools. It has its place, but in the elementary schools it should 
always be associated with the making of objects. This is provided for in 
our present curriculum under the head of Construction Work and Manual 
Training. 

Experience teaches that careful, skilled guidance is not as necessary 
in the work in construction as in the teaching of free-hand drawing, for in 
the construction work the home and the environment largely determines 
what the child makes and the skill with which it is done. 

But free-hand drawing, connecting as it does with the entire range of 
the fine arts, is unlimited in its scope. Reaching out into architecture, 
design and illustration of all kinds, it makes demands upon child and 
teacher for which there is no supply either in their past or present environ- 
ment outside of the art museum and the specially trained instructor. 

The instruction in drawing in our schools is indeed pioneering a path 
in education and history that has never been trod — a path necessitated by 
conditions peculiar to America. 

There is a sudden awakening on the part of both teachers and chil- 
dren to a lack in the old instruction. Imagination and creative expression 
have not been cultivated, while rote and memory work have rendered dull 
and stupid some of the best hours of school time. 

To meet this want, to stimulate and interest both teacher and child 
and to encourage them to go forward into new lines of literary content as 
well as to work out a suitable technical expression, has taxed the genius 
and strength of the Drawing Department to its utmost. That the work is 
thoroughly original andi interesting beyond words goes for the sajring ; 
but just because it is original it is dependent upon our daily experience 
with the children. Where they lead we must follow ; what we do or do not do 
is determined by their response. Each year thus far has marked a growing 
appreciation and a greater demand. In details the work never exactly 
repeats itself. 

The whole school instruction from Maine to California suffers from a 
meagerness of content. Against this we in Chicago are struggling. The 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 20I 

entire problem of the elementary schools is how to bring a richer content 
within the reach of the child, a content that shall have for its output— its ex- 
pression — the child's own experience. This has led to dramatization on 
the one hand and to free expression by mass drawing on the other. 

New expression by mass drawing can not be learned by rule or rote ; 
its acquisition means continual growth and expansion such as accompanies 
the development of a new sense. 

Like religion, art, even in its elementary aspects, is not a thing of the 
formal intellect but of instinctive feeling ; to be understood it must be ex- 
perienced. Like religion, too, it can not be systematized or commercial- 
ized without losing its soul. The school system of 1833 was founded en- 
tirely upon the formal intellect. The introduction of art into the course of 
study means an enlarging and a re-adjustment of relations between the 
child and his environment; it means a new sociology. 

Psychologists are acknowledging that art expression is a means for 
the development of a sixth sense —a sense for which previous education made 
no provision though it was always latent in the race. It may roughly be de- 
nominated the color sense. Its expression in the past has always denoted 
a flowering epoch, as in the period of the great Grothic. To produce his 
best quality of stained glass Tiffany employs girls just out of the grammar 
schools in equal proportion to men and on the same salary basis shows the 
commercial value of an art sense, yet Tiffany's stained glass is far inferior 
to that of the middle ages. 

It would seem that with the advent of the printing press, the color in- 
stinct and the art instincts of the race received a temporary set-back which 
evolution through recent innovations in the instruction of the common 
schools it is now seeking to retrieve. 

Men like Tolstoi, Dr. Hugh Munsterberg, Havelock, Ellis and Will- 
iam Morris are persuaded that there is no hope for a democracy except as 
we educate the people to share in the arts, and that the free public school 
system of a country is the ordained vehicle through which this is to be ac- 
complished. 

But just because American conditions are not European conditions no 
greater mistake can be made than to attempt to fasten French, English or 
German methods and ideals upon the people's schools of America. It is 
this earnest conviction that has shaped my art and educational policy in 

the schools. 

Our methods and results command the admiration of foreigners be- 
cause we are solving the problem in a new way, making the child the cen- 
ter of all our work, while they are seeking to impart information, precision 
and technical skill at the same time. London, Paris, Berlin and Rome 



2 02 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

spend three and four times more of the school period teaching drawing than 
we do. 

Art is not expression alone nor content alone, but both. In all sincere 
art expression the initiative must come from the doer or worker ; it is the 
duty of the authority to guide, not dominate or dictate. In our art work 
we incessantly strive after sincerity. This is why our technique is often 
poor That it is abreast of the child's experience is all the claim we make. 
With children a technique that is formalism and does not express is not 
desirable. Mass treatment, with soft materials like colored chalk, charcoal 
and the brush, is more attractive to the child than pencil, with an outline 
treatment, the European or academic method. We find much of the con- 
tent for the art expression in geography, literature, history, story telling,, 
and the study of pictures and of nature, while in turn the art work supple- 
ments and enriches the more formal studies, leading pupils where, without 
the added element of art, they would never arrive, and supplying them 
with a stimulant for research and investigation. In common with all 
educators who have seriously studied the situation I recognize the great 
waste that pervades common school instruction, reading, writing, 
geography and history. So far as the elementary schools are concerned 
this fault is due to the division of life into periods of groups of activities or 
growths, each circle of growth demanding its own nourishment and 
treatment. If the best interests of the child are consulted, instruction in 
the elementary schools will always remain different in method and aim 
from instruction in the high schools. Not more than 10 per cent of the 
children in a large city go to the high school, while the majority of the 
children who enter in the first grade leave by the time they are tour years 
in school. These first four years are all important. Every child is entitled 
to a happy childhood. It is the duty of the state to make this possible 
through its instruction. Music, play, song and art of every kind make the 
earth less dreary and carry higher life to struggling humanity. Elementary 
schools create culture, while academic schools only conserve it. Childhood 
determines manhood, not manhood childhood. 

The work of the past year has, as a whole, been marked by a larger 
use of color, better modeling and drawing, and by the children's desire ta 
apply their art in such practical ways as the making of posters, stained 
glass windows, calendars, valentines and the devising of scenery suitable 
for their school plays. This has been a natural result from the regular in- 
struction relating itself to the games, the reading and the occupations of 
the children. 

At the Kozminski, Webster, Farren, O 'Toole and Holden Schools 
parents' receptions and picture exhibitions have been held under the 
auspices of the drawing department and the Public School Art Society. 

Stereopticon lectures on art, history and architecture have been giverk 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT 205 

at the Lafayette, Ryerson, Hammond, Morris, Carter, Bradwell, McPher- 
son, McCosh and Horace Mann Schools. 

The annual examination for the Thomas Cusack medal was held as 
usual, and the medal was awarded to Morris Beilin of the Medill School.. 
Honorable mention was also given to two boys from the Clarke School . 

The special teachers of drawing have by their devotion and unselfish- 
ness contributed no little to the growth of the social and home spirit in the 
schools. This of itself ought to insure a perpetuity of their services. The 
community life in our schools counts for far more in the making of the 
nation than the mere acquisition of learning. 

To the grade teachers thanks are due for the willing minds and open 
hearts with which they continue to reach out year after year toward a 
higher life for themselves and for the children. 

I am grateful to the District Superintendents for their generous cour- 
tesy and for their kindly recognition of the work of the department. 

Very respectfully, 

Josephine C. Locke, 
Supervisor of Drawing Elementary Schools. 



REPORT OF HENRY SUDER, SUPERVISOR OF 

PHYSICAL CULTURE. 

Dr. E. Benj. Andrews^ Superintendent of Schools: 

I herewith respectfully submit to you my annual report on the teach- 
ing of physical culture in our public schools. 

The old saying that "a sound body is necessary for a sound mind " 
needs no fortification by arguments. Principals and teachers are more 
and more convinced that the same attention should be paid to bodily as to 
mental education. 

Since physical culture has become a part of our school curriculum it 
has gained ground, slowly advancing from calisthenics only to calisthenics 
with hand apparatus, and from the latter to heavy gymnastics (exercises on 
apparatus). 

But, unfortunately, not all the pupils in our schools can enjoy these 
exercises. Fifty-eight of our elementary schools are equipped with 
apparatus. One of these schools has a regular gymnasium, in two schools 
the assembly halls are equipped, in two schools the apparatus was put up 
in vacant class rooms, and in fifty-three schools the apparatus for our 
work is placed in the corridors. A proposal to equip forty-five more 
schools was made, but on account of lack of funds the equipment was 
postponed. 

Some time ago an appropriation was made by the Board to equip the 



204 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

gymnasiums of the Lake View and Engl e wood High Schools with 
apparatus, and by the beginning of the new school year the gymnasiums of 
these two high schools will be fitted out with modem apparatus for bodily 
training. 

The high schools in which pupils will be able to practice exercises in 
the gymnasiums at the beginning of the next school year are Englewood, 
Hyde Park, Lake View, Medill, Marshall, North- West Division and West 
Division. In the other high schools, on account of the lack of space, the 
exercises are executed in the class rooms or corridors. 

As the work on the apparatus was entirely new to most of our class 
teachers, the Board appointed three more assistants, who visited only 
schools in which heavy gymnastics were practiced. Although lessons 
could be given but once a month, comparatively good work has been done. 
That the work in our schools could be done as it has been with so few 
special teachers is to a great extent due to the principals and class teachers, 
who took up the new work enthusiastically, feeling that what is worth 
doing at all is worth doing well. When light gymnastics were introduced 
he Board thought it necessary to give each class a lesson by a special 
teacher twice a week, because the work was new and the regular class 
teacher could not conduct it. 

The heavy gymnastics are also new and more complicated than- the 
light and more care should be eiven in teaching them. The assembly halls 
in our schools ought to be equipped with gymnastic apparatus, and in 
schools without such halls a class room should be set aside for gymnastic 
purposes. Thoroughly educated teachers of physical culture should give 
the instruction often enough to gain good results. The teachers of 
physical culture in former years visited each school twice a week. The 
same attention ought to be paid to the present system. The pupils should 
receive instruction at least once a week by a trained teacher. 

Chicago was one of the first cities in this country which introduced 
light gymnastic exercises into its schools, and it is the first city that has 
begun \vith the introduction of heavy gymnastics into the high and ele- 
mentary schools. Other cities have followed our example and at present 
physical exercises are practiced in nearly all the larger American cities and 
many of the smaller ones. 

Compared with the results in many of the European countries, into 
whose schools bodily training was introduced more than half a century ago, 
we have made only a step in the right direction, but with the aid of the 
Board I hope that in time we shall be able to record as good results as have 
been attained anywhere. Respectfully submitted, 

Henry Suder, 

Supervisor of Physical Culture. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 205 

REPORT OF R. F. BEARDSLEY, SUPERVISOR OF MANUAL 

, TRAINING. 

Dr. E. Benj , Andrews, Superintendent of Schools: 

It affords me great satisfaction to report the progress which has at- 
tended the increased work of the manual training department during the 
past year. 

Character is the result of rightly acquired knowledge. It can not be 
obtained through the study of books alone, but must come from actual con- 
tact with the results of social progress. Unapplied learning is as degrading 
as ignorance. It is dross in the souls of men who might be cheerful and 
useful citizens were it not for the incubus of unassimilated book learning, 
making them too learned for real work, not skilled enough to think. 

The end in view for the work of the manual training department has 
been the uplifting of the moral and intellectual standards by which our 
civil life is governed. The skill, patience and judgment gained through 
hand work has been given its proper place back of the training for har- 
monious contact with ones fellow creatures. Power to appreciate work and 
its results, and a kindly sympathy with the workers is more to be desired 
than concise knowledge of processes^or highly cultivated dexterity. 

This power of appreciation of the work of one's fellow men is to be 
obtained only by a concrete knowledge of work, a knowledge of the nice- 
lies of thought, the skill and patience necessary to the production of a 
useful or a beautiful thing. 

As learning, like electricity, follows the paths of least resistence, we 
seek to impart a knowledge of making by means of tasks which children 
impose upon themselves. Working out their own thoughts has had a most 
salutary effect. The results in power to produce skillfully have been equal 
to those attained under the system of tasks or copied exercises. 

The subject of manual training has been given in public schools else- 
where for the sake either of the technique of some trade or because of the 
theoretical value of hand work in strengthenmg will power. Both these 
ends are attained wherever construction forms part of the course of study. 
The expense involved in establishing manual training for younger children 
would be justified by these results alone. We are, however, conducting 
the workVith a more broadly educational view. 

Some children require a stimulus to self-confidence while others need 
repression of bumptiousness. By having the work of each show the indi- 
vidual characteristics of the worker we have demonstrated that a balance 
is struck in the educational effect of the work, each cljild realizing his own 
defects and capabilities, placing a true valuation on his own work and that 
of others, and creating a spirit of emulation rather than of rivalry. 

The progress of manual training toward a closer co-ordination with 



206 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



the work of all other departments has been marked. Especially has this 
been true of its relation to drawing and nature study. The pupils have se- 
lected and designed many pieces of apparatus for the nature study, and 
have made use of their drawing lessons to a remarkable extent in decorat- 
ing the things they have made in the shops. 

The almost universal attempts at construction work in all grades has 
greatly aided the work of the manual training teachers, for it has awakened 
the grade teachers to the fact that a new power in education was at hand, 
hitherto neglected, yet ver^' accessible. This re-adjustment in their own 
work and thought has induced a sympathy and spirit of co-operation 
between the grade and special teachers which has been most satisfactory 
and helpful to the manual traming department. 

The very successful and instructive exhibit of construction work at 
the Calhoun School showed us many mistakes which may in future be 
avoided, and has to a certain extent pointed the way lor a co-ordinated 
course in primary manual training. 

The idea that special teachers are required in the manual training 
department has become so set in minds of the teaching force that it will be 
very difficult to persuade them that the work can be successfully conducted 
by the grade teachers. Yet if construction is to become an integral part of 
the school curriculum we must in time abolish the special teacher. I sug- 
gest that several manual training teachers be employed as grade teachers, 
and that only a part of their time be devoted to the manual training feature 
of their work. This would not only assure a closer co-ordination but 
would place the shop work in the position of laboratory practice, an 
incidental adjunct to all other teaching done in the school. 

Eight years ago, when the subject was first introduced into the 
elementary schools, few principals or teachers could be persuaded that 
manual training was anything more than a fad for children below the high 
school. Now the entire teaching force are not only friendly toward the 
work we are doing, but are clamorous for its further extension to the 
lowest grades. 

The printed course of study in manual training, published last year, 
is a radical departure from the practice elsewhere. No such text book had 
ever been printed by any Board of Education. It has proved of inestima- 
ble value to the special teachers, and has been sought by educational people 
all over the country. It has been especially helpful to those contemplating 
the introduction of manual training departments in localities where ideas 
regarding the subject were vague, and where the teachers were at a loss as 
to the selection of subject matter for the proposed department. 

I desire to call your attention to another departure from formalism 
which has come from this department — namely: the classification of the 
teachers into three groups as junior teachers, teachers and expert teachers 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 207 

The salaries to be paid to instructors in either group cease to increase after 
three years of service in that group and no further increase is given unless 
the instructor is found worthy of promotion into a higher group. Thus we 
have aimed to preserve the best features of the merit and years of service 
systems of advancement. This classification, together with the require- 
ments for candidacy as manual training teachers (a recent action of the 
Board demanding normal training), will undoubtedly raise the standard of 
this as well as of other departments. 

More than fifteen thousand boys have received the benefits of manual 
training instruction during the past year. The number of shops has been 
increased from twenty-three to thirty-four, and the cost of equipment has 
been reduced from $1,000 to about $600. Cost for maintenance has been 
reduced as follows : 

1. Material per pupil per year from 50 cents to 80 cents. 

2. Instruction per pupil per year from $2.50 to $2. 

Allow me to express the thanks I feel for the hearty co-operation of 
the manual training teachers during the past year, and to the superinten- 
dents and principals for support and encouragement and the friendly 
feelings they have so freely manifested toward my work. 

Yours respectfully, 

R. F. Beardsley. 
Supervisor of Manual Training. 



REPORT ON THE CHICAGO VACATION SCHOOLS. 
Dr. E. Benj. Aiidrews, Superintendent of Schools: 

Four vacation schools were opened for six weeks during the summer, 
at the Haven, Foster, Carpenter and Adams Schools. The Board of 
Education granted the use of the buildings and equipments, the Woman's 
Clubs furnishing through private and public subscriptions the money 
necessary to carry on the work. 

Four hundred children, sixty per cent of whom were boys, were cared 
for in each school. Fifty-nine teachers were employed at a salary of two 
dollars per day. Thirty of these teachers were from the regular schools of 
Chicago, seven from outside public schools, seventeen from city private 
schools, and five unemployed during the year. In addition to these, forty- 
eight cadets from last year's Normal graduates donated their valuable 
services to the cause. 

The curriculum for which no books were used consisted of manual 
training for all of the boys — rules, kites, ornamental and useful articles for 
the homes and school. Sewing for the girls — working buttonholes, darn- 



208 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



ing hose, mending tears, making aprons and school bags. Gymnastics — 
recreative, antagonistic and competitive games. Music — soul expression 
in songs of devotion, patriotism and industry. Art — sketching nature in 
the fields and from memory, using water colors and colored chalk. 
Nature study — the study of plant, insect and animal life in its native sur- 
roundings. Kindergarten — plays and games with nature's gifts. 

To facilitate the work, which was grouped around nature study, the 
children were taken from their environment once each week, usually to the 
country, where material was gathered for use in the various departments. 
On each trip photographs were taken of the prominent features of the 
country visited, transferred to slides, and projected upon a screen by 
means of a heliostat. In this way every trip was not only reviewed in its 
entirety, but many new and interesting facts were brought to light by pro- 
jection. Geographical features were also very carefully considered on 
these excursions. 

All work in the school room was on the departmental plan, each 
teacher handling but one subject, and the pupils moved from room to room. 
The school hours were from nine to twelve, divided into four equal periods. 
The children congregated in the corridors at five minutes before nine and 
sang songs, repeated the civic creed and saluted the flag. 

The total cost ' per pupil for the six weeks, including material, 
excursions and teachers' salaries, was $3.15. 

Each school and each room in the vacation schools the past summer 
might well be called an experimental station, as the work was directed 
with the view of attempting to give the children from congested districts a 
systematic vacation through interest and impressions. 

O. J. MiLLIKEN, 

Superintendent of Vacation Schools. 



Report of the superintendent. act) 

TABLE 
Showins enrollment, membership, attendance and promotions in the sev- 
eral schools, together with the per cent of attendance and the per cent 
of promotions for the year ending June, 1899: 



U<s 



























*»5 


M.a 


















































































































































































































1.089 





chlcaoo Noroial 

OBLumetUlEh 

SaKlewood mgh 

HTdeFarkHJib 

JeSamui HIsE 



HiTshall Blgh 

HsdUIHIcb 

North DlTUIon HiKh 

North- Wen DIrialOD HiEta. . . 

Sonth CbloaKD BiRh 

Boatb DItIbIoq High 

Weit DItMod Hlgb 

Adiuui, John Q. 



Burle;, AnRQitua H 

Bnnialde, Ambrose E... 

BlUTOWChB 



W7.B 

aoa B 

1,196.0 



481.0 
48B.6 



PCBLIC SCHOOLS. 



ClBy.lIonry 

CalumbBB 

Cooiier 

Gorkeiy, DanlolJ , 

-CDmsll 

■Crorar, John 

CammiDitB 

CnrtlB, Qeorfio Wm 

Darwin, Cbsrlea R 

I>iHillitle, Job. It. Jr. 

Burle, dbarlits WurrluRlon.. 

flKhleenlli Street. 

Blicbtr-tliird Street 

Bllla X'eiiuB 

Bnierenn 

KriniMHin, John 

Everett 

Ifallon 

Farragut 

Femwoiid 

F^rreatTllIe 

Prankiiiii;"!!""!!;;!;!!!!'. 

PrDebel 

Fuller. Helvlllew 

Fa] ton 

Galllatel 

UarHeld 

Oladatone 

Ooetbo 

Ooudrloh 

Goudy, W, C 

Oreoler, naraua 

Greene, NHtlianael 

Greenwood A Tenne 

iiamutou:.".v;.v".'.'!;.';;!!! 

Ilnnonak 

HaitlKan 

Harvard 

UawlhoT^o"^".'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

ileadley 

[le&lr 

lledKea 

IlendrluKB 

noerner 

noimBBi'.;!"!;;;:!::';;;::!; 

Ilowland, GeurKe 

tloyne, Tliomaa 

Huron Street 

Irvlntr. 



1,117,8 
llwfl'.S 



IlEPORT OP THE SUPERIMTENDEKT. 



JuukBon. Andrew.. . 



KiMolaako 

KozinlnskL, Cboilea .. 
lA ParetM 



Loostellow. , . 



Harqaeltfl, 
Hanh, J. I 



HlCohell. Ellen. 

Honleflnre 

UoDB. Bernbord 

Hoaeley 

MSllf/an.""!!; 
Naeh, Heanr H. 



Norwood Farii.., 

OToole , 

Oakland 

OaklBT Avenue.. 

ORkRIdgn 

OakSCreel 

ParkUaBor,.!... 
Parkslde 

PlotanJ:!"!'.!!!'. 

Polk street 

Preeoott 

Pulaaki 



484! 1 
18-i.4 



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ft4.3 
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tUBLiC SCHOOLS. 



80HOOLB. 



Pallman 

Raster, Hermann 

RaTenswood 

Ray 

Raymond 

Riyerdale 

Rogers 

Rogers Park 

Rose Hill 

Ryerson 

Soammon 

Soaulan 

Schiller 

Schneider, George . . . 

Scott, Walter 

Seward 

Sheldon 

Sheridan, Mark 

Sheridan. Phil 

Sherman 

Sherwood 

Shields. 

Skinner. 

Smyth, John M 

Sprimrer 

Stony Island Ayenue. 

Samner 

Swinir, DaTid 

Taloott 

Taylor. 

Tennyson 

Thomas. Qeorxe H . . . 

Thorp, J. N 

Throop 

Tilden 

Tilton 

Tnunlmll, Lyman. . . . 

Van Vlissinfeen 

Yon Humboldt 

^Wahansia ATenae . . 

Walsh 

Ward 

Washtrame. 

Washinston 

Webster 

Wells 

Wentworth, D. S 

West Pullman 

Whiiiier 

Wicker Park 

Willard, Frances B . . . 

Wood lawn 

Worthy, John 

Tale 

Tates, Richard 



p 

a 



a 



Mil 

666 

1,188 

1,060 

1,078 

169 

768 

668 

188 

1,144 

1,007 

751 

1,816 

1.081 

726 

1,180 

660 

1.067 

1,S» 

1,588 

1,406 

756 

1,438 

1,875 

8oe 

«77 
1.201 

903 
1,854 

664 
1.017 

759 
1,064 
1.C66 

908 

906 

850 
1,185 
2,206 
11 
1,561 
1,107 
1.686 
1,151 

960 
1387 
1,589 

886 
1,188 
1,809 

699 
1,857 

645 

946 
1,348 



< 



1,904.2 
581.4 

1,039.9 
901.2 
885.9 
128.1 
680.8 
577.6 
149.2 
962.8 
780.0 
668.4 

1,072.0 
958.2 
617.7 

1,004.8 
508.9 
870.4 

1,051.8 

13111 

1310.7 
606.5 

1,101 .6 

1,161.1 
650.1 
219.1 

1.088.8 
852.7 

1.019.4 
5S7.4 
856.8 
657.7 
862 9 
924.1 
712.2 
727.8 
727.5 
978. 8 

1.912.1 
72.5 

1,818.9 
890.2 

1,866.1 
968.8 
818.5 

1.629.6 

1380.9 
694.7 
899.6 

1,190.8 
612.5 

1,088.9 
110.0 
816.0 

1,092.9 



Totals ' 242,907 201,731.4 



< 



1,109.5 
494.0 
978.6 
886.4 
811.4 
120.0 
508.9 
686.5 
184.8 
9008 
712.1 
601.0 
994.4 
882.1 
565.8 
935.9 
467.7 
798.5 
917.0 
1,196.7 
1.129.9 
545.8 
1,005.3 
1,085.7 
618.3 
208.8 
900.8 
7«7.1 
968.5 
524.1 
795.9 
615.5 
778.9 

(MD » 
WV. I 

651.5 
707.3 
682.4 
896.9 

1317 5 
68.7 

1,882.7 
828.5 

1,281.5 
8»8.4 
756.4 

1,585.7 

1,220.5 
610.8 
8IM.6 

1.141.0 
568.2 
956.4 
110.0 
754.0 

1,011.1 



a 
o 

a 

o 



1.007 
888 
751 
818 
766 
101 
584 
496 
128 
787 
710 
523 
676 
618 
539 
844 
486 
612 
701 

1,044 

1,006 
500 
864 
960 
526 
171 
860 
608 
885 
447 
685 
442 
884 
586 
572 
671 
5SS 
889 

1.752 
192 

1.088 
660 

1,191 
777 
616 

1,141 
992 
687 
845 

l,Ott 
586 



289 
65:! 
906 



190.»12.8 . 162.267 



o . 

■♦a 73 

9 s • 

O 9 O 

P4 



98.1 
98.0 
98.6 
98.8 
91.5 
98.6 
94.2 
98.9 
90.8 
93.6 
91.8 
92.1 
92.8 
92.0 
91.6 
93.8 
91.0 
91.7 
90.0 
91.8 
98.8 
9J.0 
91.8 
98.5 
98.8 
98.6 
98.4 
93.5 
93.6 
94.0 
98.0 
986 
89.7 
91.1 
91.5 
97 2 
98.8 
91.6 
96.1 
94.8 
98.6 
98.5 
90.0 
98.7 
98.0 
94.8 
91.7 
98.8 
96.1 
96.8 
98.6 
98.1 
100.0 
92.4 
96.8 



111 



98.8 



88.6 
78.0 
78.2 
90.8 
86.5 
7«.8 
84.7 
85.9 
82.4 
76.6 
901 
80.8 
68.0 
64.6 
87.8 
84.0 
86.6 
70.8 
66.7 
79.6 
88.0 

ae.6 

78.4 
84.4 
79.8 
78.0 
88.8 
70.7 
79.6 
80.8 
74.8 
678 
96.7 
68.4 
80.8 
98.8 
73.8 
86.7 
91.6 

864.9 
88.0 
78.0 
87.0 
80.8 
75.7 
70.0 
74.5 
84.5 
93.9 
85.8 
87.5 
7«.7 

882.7 
80.0 
88.8 



79.8 



• Openeil in May. 




APPENDIX, 



APPENDIX. 



2IS 



FOSTER DIPLOMAS* 



The following pupils were awarded Foster Diplomas at the 
close of the schools for 1898-9, as follows: 



Adams, John Q. : 
Ruth Knight, 
Ilmi Maria Lamroth, 
Katharine C. Weber, 
Josephine Lofgren, 
Emil Nelson. 

Agassiz: 

Lillian Schwy, 
Edward Hermann, 
Anna Anderson. 

Alcott : 

Ethel Huntington, 
Elsie Ryckoff, 
Annie Sullivan, 
Edwin Greifenhagen, 
Ellis Valentine, 
Mabel Busch. 

Andersen : 

Wilhelmina C. Schoenwerk, 

Janet Alice Lev, 

Thomas Bertram Torgerson, 

Rose Emeline Casper, 

Samuel Schein, 

Lydia Anna Lambin. 

Armour Street: 

Arthur Wahlgren, 
George J. Ahem, 
Margaret E. Gilligan, 
Oscar Soderberg. 

Arnold: 

Mildred L. Peak, 
Blanche A. Gardner, 
Mamie L. Mulfinger. 



Auburn Park: 

Lulu Glick, 
Howard Baker, 
Arthur Blocki. 

Audubon : 

Ella Ring, 
Stella Wilhelm. 

Avondale: 

W. F. Ivan Howell, 
Frances Leckband. 

Bancroft : 

Helen Klager, 
Margaret Hagen, 
Harriet Rannpage, 
Lena Gorsky, 
Meda Dold. 

Alice L. Barnard: 

Harold W. Dorn, 
Fred C. Minuth. 

Perkins Bass: 

Gaynell Elliott, 
Elsie Genee, 
Hulda Akerholm. 

Beale : 

Alma Jensen, 
Nellie E. Mills, 
Archie T. Aurich. 

Bismarck: 

Mira Rasmusson, 
Minnie Reinhardt. 



2l6 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



Blaine: 

Annie E. Nelson, 
Lydia R. Sheall, 
Henrietta Reineke. 

BowEN : 

Huldah Spilger, 
Raymond Schlosser, 
Helen Morton Heath, 
Leta E. Leach. 

Bowman ville: 

Diena R. Hilfer. 

Bradwell, Myra: 

Adella Wohler, 

Ida Falls, 

George Kirkpa trick. 

Brenan, Thomas: 
Jessie Farr. 

Brent AN o: 

Irene M. Parsons, 
Edith Cooper, 
Emma E. Weigand, 
Talma Parsons, 
Louisa V. Knoke, 
Charlotte Pagel. 

Brighton : 

Katherine A. Klein, 
Aimee M. Denter, 
Walter T.^Perkins. 

Brown : 

Genevieve M. Brick wood, 
Vera R. Fitz Simmons, 
Ruth J. Spaulding, 
Bessie Adele Bonner, 
Jessie Cherry, 
Esther Krueger, 
Kathryne Johnson, 
Alice Chandler, 
Archibald Wengler, 
Gertrude Goldman. 



Brown ell: 

Florence Sawtell, 
Linda M. Roehl, 
Renetta P. Salter. 

Bryant : 

Robert Havlik. 

BuRLEY, A. H. : 

Daisy M. Mosher, 
Elisabeth Heiden. 

Burnside a. E. : 

Viola L. Grosjean. 

Burr : 

Emil Schimke, 
Bernardine Mendelsohn, 
Clara Skibbe, 
Bessie Aaron, 
Inger Thompson. 

Burroughs: 

Frankie Hazen, 
Irene Lamb. 

Calhoun : 

Mata Buckholtz, 
Lillie McCarthy, 
Catherine Owens, 
Grace Beeny, 
Lillian Warner, 
Minnie Douglas, 
Etta Flood, 
Edith Osinga. 

Calumet Avenue: 

Irene E. Morgan, 
Alice H. Morgan. 

Cameron, D. R,: 

Reinhold H. Schmidt, 
Augot Hetlesater, 
Evangeline L. Filer. 



APPENDIX. 



217 



Carpenter : 

Lettie S. Amundsen, 
David P. Chindblom, 
Blanche A. Clarke, 
Amanda E. Graumann, 
Jennie H. Hansen, 
Bessie J. Jacobs, 
Jennie C. Larson, 
Henrietta Nielsen. 

Carter : 

M. Irene Forbes, 
Caroline E. Townsend, 
Minnie Ranch, 
Marguerite Ryan. 

Central Park: 

Alice E. Maddock, 
E. Albertie Hunt, 
Grace Patterson, 
Lois Saunier. 

Chalmers, Thomas: 

Minnie E. Smith, 
Sigrid C. Leander, 
Blanche Adele Richer, 
Delia Irene Raddle, 
Gladys M. Wood, 
Isabella M. Simpson. 

Chase: 

John F. Roser, 
Mary C. Peterson. 

Chicago Lawn : 

Florence M. Collins, 
Nellie M. Kaufman, 
Edith W. Packer. 

Clarke: 

Greorge T. Carroll, 
Bertha A. Hesse, 
Amelia Morava, 
Otto Shatzkis. 



Clay, Henry: 

Mary McDonald. 

COLMAN : 

Lucile M. James, 
Adolph Friedmann. 

Cooper : 

Frank Joseph Tlapa, 
Alice E. Wilson. 

CORKERY, D. J. : 

Blanche E. Patnoe, 
Laura C. Doan. 

Cornell : 

Laura M. Turner, 
Valentine K. McPherson, 
Amelia Nelson. 

Crerar, John: 

Nannie Cook, 
Hazel Holmes, 
Josephine Metz. 

Cummings: 

Cassie Tiemey. 

Curtis, George William: 

Walter Oman, 
Mamie Fiddelke, 
Emma Hanusch. 

Darwin, Charles: 

Laura M. Levit, 
Oscar F. Modene. 

DooLiTTLE, J. R., Jr.: 

KatharineCrane, 
Emily C. Moore, 
Herbert H. Storms, 
Janet M. Luske, 
Helen Todd. 
Fanny Rauh. 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



DoRE: 

Margaret Doss, 

Albert G. WiUiams. 
Douglas: 

Agnes Baker, 

Helen Blum, 

Medora Googins, 

Aaron Miller 

Marion Milne, 

Harry Hillman, 

Paul Westburg. 
Barlb, Charles W. ; 

Ida Johnson. 

Irene Tiffany, 
Esther M. Reeve, 
Margaret A. Mclntyre, 
Reuata Russe. 
Ericsson, John: 

Ada Wheaton Dexter, 
Ora A. Dresbach, 
Helen Mar Miller, 
Charlotte Beatrice Beckman. 

EVEBETT: 

Bessie C. Dalrymple, 
Mary E. Carter. 
Fallon : 

Catherine F, McGeogbegan, 
Katie J. Connors. 

Parragut: 

Rosa Anna Rada. 
Farren: 

Bessie P. Knights, 

A. Laura Frisbie, 

Celia E. Fassbinder. 
Fern wood: 

Emily Aug^usta Gabel. 



FORKSTVILLE: 

John Emery Sawyer, 
Eva Hoey Ransome, 
Blanche Pauline Playford,. 

Clara Elisabeth Sargent, 

Pearl Kiper, 

Grace Emily Tinker. 
Franklin: 

Clara Hennings, 

Minnie Johnson, 

Evalyn Allmendinger. 

Elsie Jacobson, 

Blanche Hughes, 

Ella Hertlein, 

Esther Regnholi, 

Lottie Tobln, 

Agnes Walsh, 

Curt Karpe, 

Emma V. Seymour, 

Albert F. Alles. 
Frorbel: 

Ida M. Leslie, 

Rudolph P. Hadrich. 

Lillian M. Mees, 

Josie J, Cech, 

Lulu L. Benson, 

Matilda 1. Eisenlohr, 

Lillie N. Hallgren. 

William S. Maynard, 

PwLLER, Melville W, ; 

Jeannette Laura ilyers, 
Harriet A. Harrell, 
William Odall fihepard, 
Florence Minier Spears. 
Jessie B. Webber. 

Fulton: 

Florence Cassidy. 
Galustel: 

Elizabeth A. Gaffney. 



APPENDIX. 



219 



Garfield: 

Elizabeth Keller, 
Eddie Jacobs, 
Jennie Brody, 
Annie Simon, 
Hymen Moment. 

Gladstone- 

Katie A. Krauel, 
Helen P. Bonthron. 
Emma Hambacher, 
Herbert Prothero, 
Elsie Wallace. 

Goethe: 

Harriet Kehm, 
Anna Bagger, 
Rosamond Quinn. 

Goodrich: 

Bettie Weinstock, 
Annie L. Jost, 
Katie Berkman, 
Rose Cohen. 

GouDY^ W. C. : 

Luella E. Buckley, 
Frances Ely Smith, 
Blanche B. Moore. 

Graham: 

Eabel C. Putnam, 
Alice G. Sheahan. 
Ada Mae Kaplan, 
August Eerebout, 
Margaret Anna Grady, 
John J. Kay den. 

Grant: 

Stella Louise Debbio, 
Ruth Edna Allen, 
Dency Belle Copeland. 



Greeley, Horace: 

Gustie Cramer, 
Arthur Lindgren, 
Anna Evert. 

Greene, Nathaniel. 

Myrtle A, Woodward, 
Harriet M. Maronde, 
Carl C. Sorensen. 

Greenwood Avenue: 

Blanche Williams, 
Florence A. Crocker, 
Mildred Althea Deane. 
Helen M. Jamieson, 
John M. Richardson Lyeth, 
Guy C. Sandall. 

Gresham: 

Fleta Mabel Wheeler. 
Olive May Wilson, 
Cora G. Deters. 

Hamilton : 

Guy M. Blake, 
Ida K. Jacobs. 

Hammond: 

Blanch Elizabeth Mazanec, 
Mary Agnes Slama. 

Hancock: 

Annie M. Larson, 
Peter J. Corrigan. 

Harvard: 

Alta May Coultas. 

Harrison : 

Matilda Fenner, 
Sadie B. Draperi 
Caroline M. Anderson, 
Marie L. Baenziger. 



i 



ttEfORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 



TABLE 

Showing enrollment, membership, atteodai 

eral sctiools, together with the per cent 

of promotions for the year ending Jun< 



ice and promotions in the s 
of attendance and the per ci 
:, 189S: 



^^. 


1 


fill 


hit 


j 


K:! 

sa H 

H.U 
99.8 

1 

il 

§8 
11 

Sl.S 

9s!t 
9«.g 

Bi:^ 
si:9 

II 

BSis 
BM 
BS.O 
B3.8 

Bu!7 

il 






UTS 

sen 

l.OM 

'■is 

'i 

S 

1,338 

1 

lis 

1,«0 

'■US 

■f 

,.i 
'i 

1 

'S 

'i 


SU.9 
SVT.O 

ssa.o 

B08.7 

11 

ill 

'■S:! 

1.061,4 

],(Ma.4 

l|:! 

ll 
Si 

7W.9 

r;! 

],7H,5 

LtllBig 
8973 

1,74e!3 

i.m.3 
i.sai.3 


40). 
Ml. 

i; 

«BI. 

150 ! 

8M. 

jf: 

1.SB3, 

ll 

7Bi;8 

'11 
II 

'•ii 


m 

«oo 

ST8 
l.tXH 

:» 

4U5 

see 

s 
S 

'i 

era 

,1 

'sra 
iw 

1.009 

■ i 
i 

1 

1,319 
738 

■f 

1,088 












BnKlUbBJgb ^ "■oaal TralnluK 




























Kt'SSSK'SS'b"™:::::: 












































g:S«"^'^t':::::::::::::;:::;::::;: 


eB. 

US' 








B8. 






























f!!' 






































































OhlowoLown 

OJariR... 


ST.B 
84.4 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



„.0.„. 


1 


hit 

< 


m 


1 


pi 






978 

'i 
'S 

us 

BTO 

aes 

3 

1.641 

'■S 

'■s 

■i 

3«1 

ilsas 

,?.! 

■M 
918 

m 
a.m 
i.m 

TBI 

•47 
1,S34 


'it 

1.3M. 
804: 

m. 
m'. 

984. 

i.s3i; 

l»7.0 

4m: 
S: 

■f 
i-Bii; 

S: 
If 

L.'ka;? 

709,9 
I.SSS.fi 

lis 

13458 

S! 
Il 

294:8 

■i! 

807.8 

lao.T 
uas:? 

819:9 
LCBSlo 


i;l 
■11 

ST.:. 

J3S 

;t 
iji 

'§. 

971 
637 

i.aao 

713 
70} 

66.^ 

388: 
1,119: 

m. 

109:, 

Wti'. 


478 

, 1 

i 

608 

1 

s 

TOT 

'ffl 

i 

1,06S 

i.iBa 

603 
850 

9S8 
S41 

684 

8oe 

506 

li 

1 
i 


9i.Z 

K 

B3:o 

93:9 

9o:a 

92.1 

9o:e 

li 

S;! 

90,7 
94,9 
92 .£ 
9S,4 

BaiT 
93:a 

!!:! 
K 

93,7 
93,3 
91.4 

bs:t 

i! 
li 

99:2 

91,1 
99,8 

91,5 

|l 

1;? 

92,4 

9s:i 




































Darwin. CbarleB R 


T1.4 














Baiie, CharlSB WairlneCon 


Si-? 



































































































































































































Report op the superWtendeNT, 



lii 



Jaokgon. And raw 

Jefferson 

Jefferson Park 

JlrkB. rmnk J 

Ke\tblv^v^\\v^v^''.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.','.'. 

Kenwood 

Kershaw 

Klnit 

Knlokerbooker 

Komeusky , 

Kowliuko 

KoEmlnski, Cbartea 

LaFarette 

LaDgland 

LaBalle 

Lawndale 

Lawion, Victor F 

Lewte'ChamplIn 

Uacotn 

LoQRfellow 

Lowell 

MoAIIUtor. 

Moaellan 

SoOosh 

MoLaren, John 

If aPberaun 

UadlBoi] Avenue 

Manlerre , 

Hann, Horsoe 

Harqaette. 

Harab. J. L 

UanhaU 

Hodlll 

Hltahell. Blleo 

Monloflore 

MoOB, Bernliard 

MoMlew .'...'.'.'".'.'i 

Kotley , 

HullleaTi 

Naih, HearyH 

NeLtelhoret, Loula 

Newberry 

Nllon.Wm. Penn 

Normal PpHctloe , 

Norwood Park 

O'Toole 

Oakland 

OBkRidgef.'l^f;;!:;',;;!;'.!;";; 

Oak street 

Park Manor."!!.".'.'"!!.'.'.' .'.'.'.".'.'i 

Farkslde 

PeabodT 

PlckatdL 

Polk Street 

Pniaaki.!!!!!!!!!!!!:;;;::;!!!!! 



iti 



t»UBLlC SCHOOLS. 



SCHOOLS. 



Pallman 

Raster, Hermann 

Ravenswood 

Ray 

Raymond 

Riverdale 

Rogers 

Rosters Park 

Rose Hill 

Ryerson 

Soammon 

Scaulan 

Schiller 

Schneider. Qeorge . . . 

Scott, Walter 

Seward 

Sheldon 

Sheridan, Mark 

Sheridan. Phil 

Sherman 

Sherwood 

Shields 

Skinner 

Smyth, John M 

Springer 

Stony Island Avenue. 

Sumner 

Swlnif, David 

Talcott 

Taylor. 

Tennyson 

Thomas, Oeorge H . . . 

Thorp, J. N 

Throop 

Tilden 

Tilton 

Trumbull, Lyman. . . . 
Van Vllssinfren. . . . . . 

Von Humboldt 

*Wabansia Avenue . . 

Walsh 

Ward 

Washburne 

Washington 

Webster 

Wells : 

Wentworth, D. S 

West Pullman 

Whittier 

Wicker Park 

Willard, Frances E... 

Woodlawn 

Worthy, John 

Yale 

Yates, Richard 



o 

a 

o 
u 

a 



Totals. 



1,411 

666 

1,188 

1,060 

1,078 

169 

768 

668 

188 

1,144 

1,007 

751 

1,816 

1,081 

725 

1.180 

660 

1.057 

1,826 

1,588 

1.406 

756 

1,438 

1,375 

802 

277 

1,201 

992 

1,254 

654 

1,017 

759 

1.064 

1.066 

903 

906 

850 

1.135 

2,206 

11 

1,551 

1,107 

1.685 

1,151 

960 

1,887 

],.'>29 

836 

1,132 

1,309 

699 

1,257 

645 

946 

l,2-i3 



242.807 



< 



1,904.2 
531.4 

1.039.9 
901.2 
885.9 
128.1 
680.8 
677.5 
149.2 
962.8 
780.0 
652.4 

1,072.0 
958.2 
617.7 

1,004.2 
608.9 
870.4 

1,061.8 

1,311.1 

1.210.7 
605.5 

1,101.6 

1,161.1 
659.1 
219.1 

1,033.2 
852.7 

1,049.4 
557.4 
855.3 
657.7 
862 9 
924.1 
712.2 
727.8 
727.5 
978.8 

1,912.1 
72.5 

1,318.9 
890.2 

1,366.1 
968.8 
813.5 

1.629.6 

1.330.9 
694.7 
899.6 

1,190.3 
612.5 

1,038.9 
110.0 
816.0 

1,092.9 



204,731.4 




1.109.5 
494.0 
973.6 
836.4 
811.4 
120.0 
598.9 
636.5 
134.8 
900 3 
712.1 
601.0 
994.4 
882.1 
.'^.8 
935.9 
467.7 
798.5 
917.0 

1,196.7 

1,129.9 
545.3 

1,005.3 

1,085.7 
618.3 
203.8 
960.3 
797.1 
982.5 
524.1 
795.9 
615.5 
773.9 
869.7 
651.5 
707.3 
682.4 
896.9 

1,817.5 
88.7 

1,232.7 
823.5 

1,231.5 
898.4 
756.4 

1,585.7 

1,220.5 
640.8 
864.6 

1,141.0 
568.2 
956.4 
110.0 
754.0 

1,041.1 



S 

o 

o 

a 

o 

£ 



1,007 
888 
751 
818 
766 
101 
584 
496 
123 
737 
710 
523 
676 
618 
539 
844 
436 
612 
701 

1,044 

1,005 
600 
864 
980 
526 
171 
860 
603 
835 
447 
635 
442 
834 
586 
572 
671 
5a3 
889 

1.752 
192 

1.082 
650 

1,191 
777 
616 

1,141 
992 
587 
845 

1,022 
536 
828 
289 
652 
905 



190,842.8 



162.267 



o . 
a p . 

♦^ a 



92.1 
98.0 
93.6 
92.8 
91.5 
93.6 
94.2 
92.9 
90.3 
93.5 
91.3 
92.1 
92.8 
92.0 
91.6 
93.2 
91.0 
91.7 
90.0 
91.3 
93.3 
9J.0 
91.3 
93.5 
93.8 
92.6 
93.4 
93.5 
93.6 
94.0 
93.0 
93 5 
89.7 
94.1 
91.5 
97.2 
93.8 
91.6 
95.1 
94.8 
93.5 
92.5 
90.0 
92.7 
92.0 
94.2 
91.7 
92.2 
96.1 
05.8 
92.6 
92.1 
100.0 
92.4 
95.3 



93.2 



Sag 

III 

Oh 

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Opened in May. 



APPENDIX, 



APPENDIX. 



2IS 



FOSTER DIPLOMAS- 



The following pupils were awarded Foster Diplomas at the 
close of the schools for 1898-9, as follows: 



Adams, John Q. : 
Ruth Knight, 
Ilmi Maria Lamroth, 
Katharine C. Weber, 
Josephine Lofgren, 
Emil Nelson. 

Agassiz: 

Lillian Schwy, 
Edward Hermann, 
Anna Anderson. 

Alcott : 

Ethel Huntington, 
Elsie RyckofiF, 
Annie Sullivan. 
Edwin Greifenhagen, 
Ellis Valentine, 
Mabel Busch. 

Andersen: 

Wilhelmina C. Schoenwerk, 

Janet Alice Lev, 

Thomas Bertram Torgerson, 

Rose Emeline Casper, 

Samuel Schein, 

Lydia Anna Lambin. 

Armour Street: 

Arthur Wahlgren, 
George J. Ahern, 
Margaret E. Gilligan, 
Oscar Soderberg. 

Arnold: 

Mildred L. Peak, 
Blanche A. Gardner, 
Mamie L. Mulfinger. 



Auburn Park: 

Lulu Glick, 
Howard Baker, 
Arthur Blocki. 

Audubon : 

Ella Ring, 
Stella Wilhelm. 

AVONDALE : 

W. F. Ivan Howell, 
Frances Leckband. 

Bancroft : 

Helen Klager, 
Margaret Hagen, 
Harriet Rannpage, 
Lena Gorsky, 
Meda Dold. 

Alice L. Barnard: 

Harold W. Dorn, 
Fred C. Minuth. 

Perkins Bass: 

Gaynell Elliott, 
Elsie Genee, 
Hulda Akerholm. 

Beale : 

Alma Jensen, 
Nellie E. Mills, 
Archie T. Aurich. 

Bismarck: 

Mira Rasmusson, 
Minnie Reinhardt. 



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BOARD OF EDUCATION-I899.J900* 

URAHAM H. HARRIS, President 

THOMAS GALLAGHER, ... - Vice-President 
LOUIS C. LEGNER, Secretary 



MEMBERSHIP. 



Thomas Brenan, 216 Reaper Block, Clark and Washington Streets, - 190^ 

Daniel R. Cameron, 73 Lake Street, . - - . . iqq^ 

Clayton Mark, Twenty-sixth street and Blue Island Avenue, - - 1902^ 

Mrs. Caroline K. Sherman, 1538 West Monroe Street, - - - 190O 

John T. Keating, Room 33, 66 Dearborn Street, - . . . 1900 

Thomas Gallagher, 241 South Sangamon Street, - - - - igoQ. 

Bernard F. Rogers, 154 La Salle Street, . . . . - 1900 

Jesse Sherwood, 47 Exchange Building, Stock Yards, - - - 1900 

Graham H. Harris, Rbonr 1018, 59 Clark Street, - . - . 1900 

Christian Meier, Room 42, No. 70 La Salle Street, ... 190a. 
Joseph S. Schwab, 84 La Salle Street, ------ 1900 

Mrs. IsABELLE O'Kbeffb, 4857 Michigan Avenue, - - - 1901 

Joseph Downey, No. 132 La Salle Street, . - . . . 1901 

W. S. Christopher, 406 Center Street, ..... 1901 

C. R. Walleck, 544 Blue Island Avenue, ..... 1901 

F. J. Loesch, Room 305, Ashland Block, . - - . . 1901 

Austin O. Sexton, Room 28, No. 163 Randolph Street, - - - 1901 

Joseph Stolz, 157 Forty-second Place, - - - - - 1902- 

Chester M. Dawes, 209 Adams Street, -.---- 1902 

John F. Wolff, 93 West Lake Street, - - - - - 1901 

George W. Claussenius, Room 1, 94 Dearborn Street, - - - 1902^ 



HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS, 

E. Benjamin Andrews, - - - . - - Superintendent 

Daniel J. McMahon, ....... Attorney 

John A. Guilford, ...... Business Manager 

Thomas J. Waters, ----..- Chief Engineer 

George G. Custer, ....... Auditor 

John W. Foster, ..... Superintendent of Supplies^ 

William B. Mundie, ....... Architect 

Louis C. Legner, ...... Clerk and School Agent 



INDEX TO CONTENTS. 

Membership, Officials^ and Committees, 1890-1900 . . - . 2-8 

Report of President 9-79 

Report of Committees — 

Finance 81-109 

Buildings and Grounds 111-116 

Report of Superintendent 117-212 



APPENDIX. 

Award of Foster Diplomas 215-225 

Location, Size and Value of Scuool Sites and Improvements - 220- 234 

Evening School Statistics 235-240 

High School Statistics 241-242 

Board of Education, 1899-1900 . . - . ... 243 



/ 




\ 



TfUh 

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